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2 assignments. I’m studying for my Management class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Complete a detailed research paper by answering the following questions and include an eight to ten page paper with at least eight sources, seven peer reviewed sources found and your course text book. All sources must be properly cited and referenced. Assignment must be APA compliance.

What leadership models are most effective in today’s organizations and why?
Examine the leadership styles that you have used in the past. Give specific examples of different situations where you used different styles. Analysis how effective you were as a leader in each situation and suggest ways you could have improved your performance based on the knowledge you have gained in this course.
Identify and describe the leader you want to become.
How will you transform yourself into the leader you want to become?

Second

Select a real or fictional IT company that presently does not outsource. You are the CEO and must present a business plan to the board of directors to outsource much of the manufacturing and support call center.
The business plan is to include a brief history of the company, the financial reasons driving the outsourcing along with the present and future organizational charts.
The plan is to include a detailed description of the technological challenges and how they will be overcome.
Include a discussion of any ethical issues surrounding moving jobs offshore.
The APA formatted paper is to be five to seven pages excluding title, abstract, and reference pages, include at least four peer reviewed sources found cited and referenced.

3-5 pages in length (excluding cover page, abstract, and reference list)
APA format

2 assignments

Environmental Issues in Malaysia

1 INTRODUCTION There has been a very high level of concern on environmental issues worldwide nowadays. Ministry of foreign affairs statistic shows that over the years, the temperature has been rise because of carbon dioxide trapped and green house gases have affected the global climate. This change will affect the people live all over the world. This also includes access to water, health, food and the well being of the environment. Todays, many consumers started to realize that their purchasing behavior actually will cause a big impact to the environment. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse. Although, Malaysia has undergone an excellent development followed governmental efforts to attract foreign investor to come and invest for a green product development in Malaysia, the practices of environmental responsible behavior are still low among Malaysian consumers. An example of the lack of environmental responsible behavior is shown in an article in Bernama whereby garbage thrown by one of the state in Malaysia residents is the main cause of river pollution in the state. According to a survey which was conducted on line by global market insight and information group, on the aspect of eco-friendliness of habits and behaviors only 8% of Malaysian respondents responded that they have changed their behavior in a greatest deal to benefit the environment. In addition 83% respondents reported that their views on a company’s and their College’s friendliness to the environment would influence their purchases of products and services. Studying the determinants of generation-Y consumers green purchase behavior will be definitely benefit green marketers. Generation-Y (also known as a millennial) is defined as A label attributed to people born during the 1980s and early 1990s. Members of Generation Y are often referred to as “echo boomers” because they are the children of parents born during the baby boom (“baby boomers”). Because children born during this time period have had constant access to technology (computers, cell phones) in their youth, they have required many employers to update their hiring strategy in order to incorporate updated forms of technology. In a simple word, generation-Y grew up with a technology and relies on those things to perform their job and their task. In addition, when going through a literature review in Malaysian context, there are still a gap existed between environmental knowledge, intention and behavior towards green product. [Said et al. (2005)]. Even though people that have vast knowledge about green products are not necessarily would buy a green product. Therefore, factors those determine and affect Generation-Y to purchase a green product would be worth to find out. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH Environment is defined as what surrounds a thing or an item or in other words it means the surrounding. It could be a physical element which is physical environment, that includes the built environment, natural environment such as air, water, land, atmosphere and etc or it could be human environment where people surrounding the item or thing which also known as the social environment. Today environment is getting worst and worst. Many environmental issues arise. Environmental concerns have been growing in recent years. One of the examples of environmental issue is global warming. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities such as burning garbage and waste are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide. The greenhouse effect keeps the earth warm when functioning normally. For the first time in history, human activities are altering the climate of our entire planet. According to (Jack, 2010), in less than 2 centuries, humans have increased the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 25% from the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (The Carbon Cycle; the Human Role, Earth Observatory, NASA). Green product is define as a product that produce limited carbon footprints; they may require fewer resources to produce, consume less energy or emit fewer hazardous emissions. Green product is also a product that is non toxic, water-efficient, and also recyclable and biodegradable. There are many green products that have been produce for people in the market. For example, a household cleaner. Nowadays it’s nearly impossible to go shopping without finding a plethora of products that claim to be environmentally and consumer friendly. Oddly enough, many cheap and eco-friendly substances, such as vinegar, have been used for years as home cleaners. Whether you buy a green cleaning product at a store or use something on hand in your pantry, you can reap the benefits of choosing products that are gentler on you and the environment. Phosphate-free dishwasher and laundry detergents are also consider a green product because they do not discharge environment-damaging phosphates into waterways. Other examples of green cleaning products are those labeled “certified biodegradable;” these have passed several stringent tests relating to biodegradability and environmental impact conducted by an independent certifying agency. According to Consumer Reports, the “certified biodegradable” label is more meaningful than a “general biodegradable” label. Glass and metal cleaners, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, and laundry detergents are products that might carry this label. The rationale for going green is twofold. Clearly, the positive effects on the environment are a key driver for purchasing green product. Green product provides myriad environmental benefits. They can replace toxic materials that may be harmful to people or animals. Also, some products save energy and water, while others limit solid waste and manufacturing releases. Green products create a healthier environment for people through reduced exposure to cleaners, solvents, paints and other hazardous substances. Green product also can reduce allergies. Many families find that their children are suffering from allergies, even though their family history does not necessary say that there are no allergies. In some situations, chemicals found within cleaning products contain allergens. Bleaches, toxic cleaning sprays and other chemicals used to clean the home commonly contain a variety of ingredients specifically able to cause or trigger allergies in people. Generation Y are the cool generation, they embrace brand and live in the new world of digitize communication. Thus that might be interesting to find their perception and their level of awareness towards environmental issues that the world is facing nowadays. Gen Y has grown up in a very structure, busy and over planned world. Also, Gen Y is made up of confident, optimistic young people who feel valued and wanted. In a article of science daily, Gen-Y is a people that will go all the way when it comes to saving the environment as long as it benefit to world economic and environment. They are maturing into a pragmatic generation that wants to do the right thing for the environment but also has real economic concerns 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Consumers or practically customers are the sellers and buyers that boost the country’s economy. Therefore, many firms are actually putting many efforts in order to attract more customers because these customers create businesses opportunities and generate profits to them. As the world nowadays facing so many problems regarding to an environmental issue, the consumers and their attitudes or behaviors to purchase a green product are the important factors to be considered. Consumers nowadays have more choices due to the effects of globalization. They will prefer the function of the product rather than the brand or whatsoever to ensure a healthier future. To determine the current level of Gen-y consumers preference towards the green products. To determine what are the determinants or factors of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product. To determine the consequences or effects of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product. To determine consumer level of awareness of Gen-y consumer towards green product. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Awareness towards environmental issue that the world nowadays facing play a major role encourage people to purchase a green product. Thus, this study is attempts to relate on the various variables that influence consumer especially generation-Y to purchase a green product. The objectives are as the following: To study the factors affecting the consumer especially Gen-Y to purchase green product. Gen-y is a new generation and It is crucial to understand as they are more advance and modernize. Thus, several researches have been conducted in order to understand consumers in a way that how they behave, and what are the factors that cause them to behave or react to the responses of the products. Leading factors such as price and quality are always the top concerns to the consumers. Product attributes will moderate the effects of price on quality judgments. Partial of the consumers may focus on buying low prices goods and neglect the quality of the products. This group of consumers takes the price as a measure of sacrifice. For instance, consumers take the price served as the benchmark for comparing utility gains from the quality of the product. One the other hand, some portion of the consumers will be willing to pay a premium price for the quality and function of the products, as they are very sensitive to the signals of the quality of one product. Thus, it is hope that this study will contribute further to the understanding of factors of price and quality that may lead to the consumers prefer for a green product To understand the awareness level of people about “Go Green” campaign. Nowadays, there are many environmental campaign have been organized by a government and private sector. This campaign is aim to encourage people to more concern about the environment. Thus, it is hope that this study will explore how people react to a environmental campaign and what is their level of awareness about the awareness campaign. To examine the benefit for people involvement in “Go Green” program. We might be asking, how we will benefit from getting involved in this environmental campaign. Well, recently there has been an increase in events directly related to the availability of natural resources. For example energy shortages that resulted to load shedding, change in weather patterns and water shortages. As a result, civil society is recognizing the need to manage our natural resources more effectively and responsibly. In doing so, we can ensure positive effects on our health, quality of life and even the cost of living. Thus, this study will help people to getting known more about what they will gain if they participate in the environmental campaign. To discover what consumer perception towards green product. In curiosity to identify what are the main components or criteria that consumer especially gen-Y are looking forward in order to purchase a green product. It is true that each and every one of us are special and unique in the way we are, thus, every consumer has their very own perception in purchasing a green product. Different people from different backgrounds may have different perceptions on these products. In addition to that, different demographic groups may have different perceptions to this kind of product as well. Thus, this study will help to identify whether the consumer especially gen-y prefer to buy a green product or not to safe a mother of earth. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This study is crucial as there are a lot of green products have been selling nowadays. Obviously, when we talk about green product, the price for that particular item might be so expensive. The study on factors affecting consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product may allow us to know in depth why are previous efforts taken does not produce as it is thought it would be. Based on the study conducted, motivations towards the environment, knowledge on green product, social norm, awareness and self-image have an impact on the consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product. Government may need to enhance its program in educating people green product. New and more interesting “Go Green” program and method is a definite necessity in motivating people to increase their interest/awareness on a green product and indirectly motivates them to purchase it. 1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY The research focus on students in Multimedia University (MMU) Melaka campus and teenagers from outside the campus which comes from various demographic backgrounds such as the faculty, ethnicity and nationality. The focused respondents are a great resemblance on the exact population in Malaysia. 1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL OF RESEARCH 1.6.1 Chapter 1: Introduction Regarding this chapter, it introduce the background of this research such as why do people as a consumer buy a green product. Thus, this will create a strong preference among the gen-y consumers locally and abroad to consume and purchase green products. These sections will explain in details in the of consumers’ preferences from the Malaysian perspective and as well from the global view for green products. This chapter also recognized the problem statement and the research objectives for this research. Finally, the justification of the research will help to justify the benefits and those who will gain in this research. Chapter 2 : Literature Review A thorough study will be conducted on the dependent variable and independent variables. The main purpose for this chapter is to weigh the pros and cons of the topic and to discuss in details on the ideas and knowledge concerned. In this chapter, every definition of the dependent variable and independent variables will be cited from the journals in order to strengthen every point mentioned. Several of arguments and various points of views from different authors in order to provide a stronger formation of each point can be founded in this chapter. In addition to that, this chapter explains the relationships on several independent variables relate to the dependent variables. 1.6.2 Chapter 3 : Research Methodology Research methodology is usually conducted after the thorough study of literature review. In this chapter, theoretical framework will be form to illustrate the relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Hypotheses or a proposed explanation which were made on the basis of limited evidences will explain the relationships between two or more variables. All the hypotheses stated will be tested together with empirical data. This chapter also includes the description of the sampling data, data collections and as well as the development of the questionnaire for this research. Chapter 4 : Data Analysis After questionnaires are collected from all the respondents, then few tests will be conducted to test on the validity and reliability of the results. The responds of the questionnaires from the respondents are represented by a set of numbers that symbolize their own significant meanings. Whereas the tests that will be carry out are to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research. Chapter 5 : Conclusion This chapter will provide the final outcome of this research. Thus, the final results will be explained and we will be able to identify how the exact hypotheses that formed earlier are hold. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Environmental quality in Malaysia According to report from Department of Environment Malaysia, 2006, Malaysia experienced a short period of slight to moderate haze due to trans-boundary pollution from neighboring countries. The air quality status in different states differed according to the geographical locations, the industrial and commercial activities, populated areas and the traffic conditions. During that period, Klang Valley area in Malaysia was more prone to air pollution than any other areas and the air quality was only good 23% of the time, moderate 70% of the time and the remaining 7% at an unhealthy level. As a developing country, Malaysia faced great challenge in ensuring a balance between development and environmental sustainability. Urban air and river quality, deforestation, household waste and hazardous waste are some of the serious and worrying environmental problems faced by the country According to The Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) report, Malaysian government allocated RM510 million for cleaning, preserving and beautifying rivers; RM530 million for coastal management; RM200 million for reforestation; and another RM70 million for the management of wildfire and protected areas to ensure environmental sustainability and resource management. In a global environment article stated that, Solid waste is one of the three major environmental problems in Malaysia. It plays a significant role in the ability of Nature to sustain life within its capacity. Currently, over 23,000 tonnes of waste is produced each day in Malaysia. However, this amount is expected to rise to 30,000 tonnes by the year 2020. The amount of waste generated continues to increase due to the increasing population and development, and only less than 5% of the waste is being recycled. Rivers represent the lease of life which pulses through the earth. It is a finite and only source of water. In Malaysia, there are almost 1800 rivers. Sadly, more than half of these rivers have been polluted and destroyed. Improper solid waste management contributes greatly to river pollution. Improper solid waste management also contributes to climate change – decomposing waste produces methane and production of new products to meet demand emits greenhouse gases and utilizes natural resources. Therefore, a shift towards more sustainable consumption patterns is required. 2.1.1 Concern of environment There are many reasons and factors that affect consumer especially Gen-Y to buy a green product. According to Mostafa (2007), green purchase behavior or environmental friendly buying behavior is the consumption of products that are beneficial to the environment, recyclable or conservable, Sensitive and responsive to ecological concerns. Concern for the environment is perceived to be important in encouraging consumer to participate in green program and also buying a green product. Research finding suggest that, moral concerns determine several curtailment behaviors (Goldstein et al., 2008; Hage et al., 2009). However, studies on the influence of moral concerns on consumer high involvement buying decisions with environmental implications are rare (Thøgersen, 2005). This is a problem since overlooking an influential determinant might hinder or delay successful diffusion of environmentally friendlier products and innovations. Consumer identify environmental protection as a priority for governmental policies and this interest has led to an increase in ethical production-for both consumer and non-consumer products ( Finisterra do Paço et al., 2009). Sensitivity to environmental issues shifts consumer behavior towards supporting the growth and diffusion of green marketing and ecologically-conscious consumer behavior – including: consumer preference for greener firms, increase in demand for greener products. (Alsmadi, 2008; Finisterra do Pacao et al.,2009) found that greater awareness of environmental problems, increased media coverage, impact of major industrial disasters on public opinion, and the rise of pressure group activities are among the factors driving environmental concerns. 2.2 Green marketing Grant, John.(2008)define the green as a brand that that offers a significant eco-advantage over the incumbents and which hence appeals to those who are willing to making green a high priority. Soonthonsmai (2008) defined a green marketing as the activities that have been taken by firms that are really concern about the environment or green problems by delivering the environmentally sound goods or services to create consumers and society’s satisfaction. Other definitions of green marketing as proposed by marketing scholars include social marketing, ecological marketing or environmental marketing. Harrison (2008) proposed green marketing strategy by firms through positioning the environmental benefits of green products to consumers’ mindset to influence their purchasing decision. Peatitie (2007) and Welford (2000) defined green marketing as the management process responsible for identifying and satisfying the requirements of customers and society in a profitable and sustainable way. In reality, companies that pursue green marketing encounter numerous challenges mainly from the variability of demand, un-favorable consumer perception and high cost (Gurau and Ranchhod, 2008). The most key concern lies in an understanding of green consumers and their characteristics amd will help firm to enable and to develop a new target and segmentation strategies (D’Souza et al., 2008). Dwyer (2009) defined “green” as the products to be designed, commercialized, and used which are capable of reducing sources of pollution and minimizing risks to human health and the environment. On the other hand, there are product sector specific examples of research on green buying process, such as food and household products (Vantomme et al., 2005) and clothes (Shaw et al., 2006) 2.2.1 Consumer preference on green product The dependent variable in this study is the factor that affecting consumer preferences for green products. Everyone in this Earth, play a major role as a consumer. Consumers are the main factors that boost a country’s economy. Each and every consumer has their very own perspective and preferences towards what they consume. Consumer from different demographic factors such as background and society may influence their behavior in making decisions while to purchase products. Thus, it is undeniable that consumers’ preferences and their perspective towards goods and services are hard to predict. D’Souza et al. (2006a) found out in their research that consumers’ perception of green products did not influence by criteria such as packaging, label and ingredient of a product. The important finding from D’Souza et al. (2006b) was that green consumers would rely more on their personal experience in using the product rather than evaluate a green product base on marketers’ provided information. Interestingly, this finding however contradicts to D’Souza, Taghian and Lamb’s finding they found that consumers are getting environmental information from labels before deciding to purchase a green product. It is mean that, label are important to capture consumer impression to buy a green product. The importance of consumers has lead to many researches to be conducted in order to study on their behavior and attitudes towards what they perceived on the products. Barr and Gilg (2006) was found that green purchasing behavior was the least popular activity alongside activities such as recycling and habitual household activities. However, not surprisingly, green consumers do consider environmental factors when purchasing products, but engaged more frequently in activities such as switching off lights and recycling paper (daily activities). Wheale and Hinton (2007) suggested that amongst the population of green consumers there is a hierarchy of importance of ethical drivers in the purchase decision-making process. The environment was rated as the most important ethical driver during purchasing decisions. The finding from D’Souza et al. (2006a) was if product is lower in quality, consumers would not have intention to buy green products even though they were always reading labels. Furthermore, if product is more expensive, consumers might have intention to buy green products. Therefore, D’Souza et al. (2006b) concluded from their study that consumers were not compromised to lower product quality. However, Rashid (2009) in his study stated that eco label is an important factor that would enable consumers to make the right purchase choice if faced with a situation that required their consideration of the environmental impact on a product that they wish to purchase. 2.3 Knowledge and attitude towards environment and green product Knowledge and attitude towards environment are very important to influcence consumer especially Gen-Y To buy a green product. There is a general belief among the researchers and environmental activists that through purchasing environmentally friendly products or green products, products with recyclable packaging or properly disposing of non-biodegradable garbage, consumers can contribute significantly to improve the quality of the environment (Abdul-Muhmim, 2007). The quality of the environment depends critically on the level of knowledge, attitudes, values and practices of consumers (Mansaray and Abijoye, 2005). Attitudes are the most consistent explanatory factor in predicting consumers’ willingness to pay for green products (Chyong et al., 2006). This means that price is not the main factor in preventing consumers from purchasing green products if they are pro-environment. Researcher also found that Influencing consumer behaviour is a complex and difficult task requiring knowledge of its determinants. The most convincing support of the growing influence of the ecologically-friendly consumer is the increase in the number of individuals that are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products (Bang et al., 2005). 2.4 Social norm and value perception influence consumer to buy green product. Studies have also investigated the effect social influence has affect consumer especially Gen-Y purchase green product.The interest in green initiatives is not expected to emanate only from external impositions and inducements but also from the internal sense of responsibility of a firm towards the society in which it exists. For green issues, such sensitivity is intensified by increasing environmental problems such as global warming and pollution. Such problems may also raise awareness and interest of a firm to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability. Green purchasing is primarily motivated by a certain degree of consumer ecological consciousness. Frey and Stutzer (2006) identify a number reasons behind “environmental motivation”: intrinsic motivations, altruism, internalized norms and social norms. Social norms lead individuals to take into consideration the opinions of the other members of society when choosing a green product over another: if they think that their acquaintances approve of green product purchase and disapprove of standard product purchase, there are encouraged to buy green products. (Ewing, 2005) stated that social norms are an important motivator of ecologically responsible behaviour. The strength of the normative influence of the consumers’ family and social groups on purchasing decisions depends on the characteristics of the product (e.g. luxury rather than a necessity). Value perception is the conception one has of oneself. Study in marketing influence on consumer purchase decision on green product, value perception was influencing green behaviours. This agrees to Lee(2008) finding value perception as the third predictor of her study. Apart from behavioral aspects, numerous studies have also looked at the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and purchase green product involvement. Kinnear, T. and Taylor, J. (1973) stated that there has been no significant link found between demographic segmentation and green purchase. This could be due to the notion that different groups of people relate to different parts of the environmental agenda Peattie, K. (1995). There have been contradictory results of younger and older age groups concerns about environmental issues Peattie, K. (1995). There is, however, a belief that environmental concern is directly related to a consumer’s level of education Balderjahn, I. (1988). Based on four surveys, Hines et al. found no relationship with gender. Chapter 3 Research Methodology 3.1 Overview Methodology is a system of methods used in a particular research. Research methodology normally comes after defining the problems and completing the thorough of the literature review. Research methodology which has been implemented to collect, investigate and as well as interpreting data obtained for the testing of the hypothesis will be discussed. Theoretical framework will be formed in this chapter in order to illustrate the relationships in between the dependent variable and independent variables. Besides that, hypotheses were developed and will be discussed together with the explanations in conjunction with the dependent variable and the independent variables. On top of that, plans of the sampling method, data collection methods and as well as the development of the questionnaires are included in this chapter. Finally, the data analysis and the hypotheses testing will carry out to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research. 3.2 Theoretical Framework Figure 3.1 below illustrates a theoretical framework that shows the relationships in between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Knowledge Country Factors affecting Gen-y consumer in Malaysia buying a green product Attitude Social Norm Value Perception 3.3 Explanation of Framework The preferences of consumers for green products are subjective. Consumer from different demographic factors such as background and society may influence their behavior in making decisions while to purchase products. Whether they have a greater of favor to green products or to ordinary products are just hard to predict. Thus, it is undeniable that consumers’ preferences and their perspective towards goods and services are hard to predict. The importances of consumers have lead to many researches to be conducted in order to study on their behavior and attitudes towards what they perceived on the products. The knowledge, which is one of the factors that might cause preferences for consumers to make purchases for green products. The first thing that came across consumers’ mind is the brands and firms that produce a green product. Thus, the brand image of the company has help by providing hints to the consumers in summarizing the information from that certain product. According to Grunert (1993), knowledge of the benefits of a green product’s use on the environment may have an impact on whether or not that product is purchased and used. Besides that, consumers also prefer to purchase a green product with a lower cost. The attitude is another most influential factor in consumer preferences for green products. Consumers normally are not really aware about our environment issue nowadays. It is because they get less information regarding to our environment situation. Awareness towards our enviro

Relation of Gay Marriage to the Definition of Marriage Definition Essay

nursing essay writing service A legal union of a man and a woman is defined as marriage, and it is the only possible definition of marriage. Defense of marriage act is one of the perspectives that are compatible with the bumper sticker, which keeps away any possible form of marriage such as gay marriage. It aims at discriminating people’s feelings of ethnical and sexual minorities. With emerging socio-cultural trends, the argument that same sex marriage is impossible is no longer valid. It is already legal in some countries. The society should accept that marriage in the modern society is defined mostly in terms of cultural contexts due cultural diversity. New forms of social organizations have emerged and are accepted by members of society. The government policy makers should know that the society no longer define marriage in terms of legal frameworks. Feigen Brenda argues that marriage should be explained in terms of particular social contexts. Definition of Marriage Marriage is the pursuit, acquisition, retention of socio-sexual exclusivity meaning it is the submission of oneself to emotion, and physical attraction to another person on permanent basis Scholars such as Francis Nye argues that marriage is a socially and legally recognized unit consisting of two adults sharing residential space permanently, periodically or occasionally (Rollins 100). Marriage being an institution of society can be viewed as any form of behavior that have become regularized and patterned in society to such an extent that it is considered an automatic or mandatory stage through which each member must pass through. Others consider it as a union formed when members of society decide that there are certain goals and objectives that they need to achieve and can only achieve by coming together in a structured manner. The unions are formed when two or a number of people consciously subscribe to some form of association that helps them to realize the productivity of co-existence. Others view marriage as a group of members living by specific rules and aim at pre-determined goals (Rollins 101). This paper tries to explain how gay marriage relates to the definition. Many societies have come to the reality of accepting that gay marriage is an option of marriage. Many states recognize it and have gone ahead to legalize it Pre-conditions for Defining Marriage Legitimacy The partners in marriage need to register their unions as marriage and children if any must be registered as births or adoption. Marriage does not necessarily mean that members must reproduce children themselves. Instead, they can find them using other means. It then follows that siring of children is not in itself marriage. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authorities should be aware of existence of marriage so that to solve the problems of inheritance in case of uncertainties such as divorce and death of a spouse. The society at which the members are part of must accept and recognize the union. The society focuses on thing like disparity, age and status. An individual of particular age is supposed to get married to a certain age bracket, preferable members of the same age group. Equally, an individual’s social status is critical in determining individual partner in marriage. Social statuses vary from one place to another. Most societies accept inter-class marriage while others are conservative meaning that someone only gets married to his/her class partners. The marriage partners must go through certain marriage rites such as informal education in some societies. Proximity Marriage is about sharing space and time both before and after marriage. Both share whatever belongs to one partner. Their property is registered as share holding to reduce conflicts. The married individuals should share responsibilities and must spend on each other. This means that there should be extensive consultation concerning management of family affairs and businesses if any. The couples should at all times try to think alike that is, identify the same things that they need in life. Proximity in general means that the married individuals should be near to each other in many ways both economically and socio-politically. They should not be seen to be having divergent views in ideology as adhered to in gay marriage. Affection/Commitment The couple should declare their love in public and to themselves including in privacy, it should be extended to children if any. They should constantly express themselves affectionately to each because it facilitates achievement of exclusivity that is gotten through visitation and references such as darling. The couple must declare permanent attachment to each other to an extent of altruism where by one of them is willing and ready to die for the other .The couple must be committed to each and involving themselves to each other’s affairs fully (Marcosson 6). Gay as a form of marriage contains commitment as part of its tenets. It is then clear that it does not have any difference with opposite sex marriage as claimed by many. Summary The type of marriage has been proved to be fulfilling the tenets of marriage largely. The proponents of gays have stood strong to defend the action by lobbying the society to accept them. They have come up with a number of organizations to support gay claiming that matters of love and marriage are of great concern to the society. The gay marriage activists argue that marriage is about feelings and emotions, which are not easily controlled by human efforts. We will write a custom Essay on Relation of Gay Marriage to the Definition of Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, gay should be accepted as part of marriage in a dynamic society. It is a right of an individual to express his or her heart as long as the actions do not interfere with the rights of other people. Gay marriage does not interfere with freedoms of other people in any way. It is matter of society understanding that it is a personal choice but not pressure from any individual or organization. In most of the developed world’s countries, gay marriage has become part of life. The society has finally given up allowing change (Wardle 29). Challenges of Gay Marriage Religion Most of the modern and other world’s religions have found it hard to accept that gay is not about loss of societal values and morals but about change in socio-cultural currents. They have stood out strongly to oppose the act and are lobbying their governments to illegalize gay marriage. They have formed strong community organizations to condemn the behavior. Islam culture does not allow any form of debate concerning gay marriage in their settings. Gay marriage is unpalatable in Islamic states and it amounts to punishment by death. The situation has led to stigmatization of individuals engaged in gay marriage to an extent of forming false perception that gays are sexual perverts and deviants. Gay marriage in some places are exercised secretly especially in third world countries, this means that it is exercised everywhere only that it is not public because of stigmatization (Volokh 40). The Media Print and broadcast media have given gay marriages much attention leading to doubts about its existence as another form of social life. It associates gay marriage with other societal problems such as spread of diseases, which is not true. Other factors contribute heavily to spread of killer diseases but do not receive much media attention such as substance abuse. The media plays a big role as far as stigmatization of gays is concerned. They expose the gays to the society without carrying out proper investigations about the cause of gay marriage (Kendal 72). Conclusion The emergence gay marriage in society has raised various controversies, the major one being creating a new conflict between the old and the young. Change should be gradual but in the modern system, it seems to be radical leading to many complications including emergence of new type of marriage. For there to be justice and freedom of expression and choice, the government representing the wishes of everyone should move in with speed to solve the new conflict (Richardson 78). The society will claim to be democratic and liberal when everyone is allowed to practice whatever he/she feels is right to him/her without criticism. In other words, the society should accept reality and face it fully instead of resisting. Finally, it is the role of sociologists and other community developers to carry out awareness pertaining marriage in order for people to understand that it is as a result of feelings not curiosity as majority think. Works Cited Feigen, Brenda. “Same-Sex Marriage: An Issue of Constitutional rights not Moral Opinions.” Harvard Women’s Law Journal, 34. 2004. Not sure if you can write a paper on Relation of Gay Marriage to the Definition of Marriage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kendal, Thomas. “Beyond the Privacy Principle.” Columbia Law Review, 92. 1992: 1431. Marcosson, Samuel. “Harassment on the Basis of Sexual Orientation: A Claim of Sex Discrimination under Title VII.” Geo. Law Journal, 81.1 1992: 6-10. Richardson, Valerie. “Barr tops 9 others for Libertarian nod.” Washington Times, 2008 Rollins, Joe. “Same-Sex Unions and the Spectacles of Recognition.” Law and Society Review, 39. 2005: 457-469. Volokh, Eugene. “A Common- Law Model for Religious Exemptions.” UCLA L. Review, 46. 1999: 1465 Wardle, Lynn. “A Critical Analysis of Constitutional Claims for Same Sex Marriage.” B.Y.U.L. Rev. 1.5 1996.

Los Angeles Pierce College Economics Descriptive Issues Questions

Los Angeles Pierce College Economics Descriptive Issues Questions.

MAKE SURE YOU CHOOSE A DIFFERENT TOPIC, NOT SOMETHING YOU HAVE DONE PREVIOUSLY. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU CHOSE WILDFIRES BEFORE, THEN CHOOSE SOMETHING ELSE (LIKE TORNADOES) THIS TIME.By Thursday at 11:59 PM, post your initial response including the items designated below:In this class, we are interested in learning about natural phenomena. Find a current event news article that examines something that is affecting nature or is happening in nature, here on Earth. For example, you might read an article about ice sheets shrinking, or how a hurricane set a record for top wind speeds. There are many possibilities.Avoid articles that are not about nature (for example, a political article on voting, or a domestic violence incident). Avoid articles that are about other worlds (for example, Jupiter or the Moon). The point is, we want to explore and understand natural components and processes here on Earth in this class as the semester progresses. Keep the subject matter relevant to this class!This is a substantial assignment. Spend some time on it, and make it meaningful.The article you choose MUST be current (hence, “current event”), meaning the date it was written by the author must be from this week only: November 23 –December 3.Make sure you address each of the following in your initial post (address the items in this order below, and make sure to put the words “Title of Article”, etc. so it is easy to follow):Title of article:Date of article (NOT the date you accessed it):Author/Publication Name:Website address:Summary (at least 5 sentences in YOUR own words):What did you think was especially interesting about this article to make you choose it (be serious and make it meaningful to others; do NOT say “because it was the first one I found”, etc.)By Sunday at 11:59 PM, reply to at least two classmates’ posts. Keep in mind the “Discussion Directions” and “Discussion Rubric”. Make sure your replies are several complete sentences in length. Follow the “Netiquette Ground Rules”.
Los Angeles Pierce College Economics Descriptive Issues Questions

The Tlatelolco Massacre Night Of Bloodshed And Tears History Essay

The Plaza of the Three Cultures, known as the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Spanish, symbolizes Mexico’s unique cultural heritage. La Plaza de las Tres Culturas was once the center of one of the most powerful Native American empires, the Aztecs, located in the ancient city of Tlatelolco. The square contains the remains of the Aztec temples and is flanked by the Colonial Cathedral of Santiago, and the Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores (Department of Foreign of Affairs) building. “Las Tres Culturas” is in recognition of the three periods of Mexican history reflected by those buildings: pre-Columbian, Spanish colonial, and the independent “mestizo” nation. The plaza not only represents three cultures but is an important reminder of the Mexican spirit of determination. It is the site where the Aztecs made their final stand against the Spanish army in 1521 and the massacre of 1968. It has been called Mexico’s Tiananmen Square, Mexico’s Kent State. During the presidency of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (1964-1970), there were several antecedents to the 1968 student confrontations with the Mexican government, but nothing comparable to the Tlatelolco Massacre that occurred on the night of October 2, 1968, in Mexico City’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Background The year1968 was a year of political turmoil around the world. The International Olympic Committee–headed by Avery Brundage from the U.S.–had chosen Mexico as the first Third World country ever to host the Olympic Games. This was aimed both to draw oppressed countries into imperialist-dominated world sport and to showcase Mexico as a model of U.S.-sponsored growth and relative stability. Mexico was supposed to provide a contrast to the national liberation struggles which were shaking most of Latin America, Asia, and Africa and sparking rebellions in the imperialist citadels from Detroit to Paris as well. To date, no other Latin America country has subsequently hosted the Olympic Games. The Mexican government invested a massive $150 million in preparations for the Olympics, an ostentatious amount considering the poverty that existed in Mexico. The Mexican president during the Olympics, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz ineptly strained tenuous conditions in Mexico in an attempt to preserve the peace. During the Díaz Ordaz presidency, Mexicans endured the suppression of independent labor unions, peasant farmers, and the economy. From this general dissatisfaction with President Díaz Ordaz, the student movement was born. Initially their demands were limited to greater employment and respect for university autonomy; however, the struggles of the factory workers and rural peasants soon resonated with them. This movement of rebellious students was touched off on July 24 when a fight between gangs at two high schools connected with the longtime rivals, the Mexican National Autonomous University (UNAM) and National Politechnical Institute (IPN, or “Poli”), was viciously put down by antiriot police called granaderos. When outraged vocational students protested, granaderos attacked again, killing many. In response, students seized buses and put up barricades to defend their schools. Student strikes and takeovers hit high schools all over the capital. The high school students were supported by UNAM and IPN students. Students from 70 universities and preparatory schools in Mexico formed a grassroots National Strike Council (CNH) and put forward six strike demands: disband the granaderos; fire police chiefs; investigate and punish higher officials responsible for the repression; pay compensation for students killed and injured; repeal laws making “social dissolution”–breaking down of society–a crime (under these laws many independent unionists and communists had been jailed); and free political prisoners, including students arrested in the recent disturbances as well as those seized earlier for social dissolution. Within three days the government had to call in the army to take back several Mexico City prepas (preparatorias–high schools connected to universities). There were clashes which led to many hundreds of arrests and injuries. Thirty-two students had been killed since the first confrontation, but this only fired up the youths’ resistance. The student strike spread to the UNAM, IPN, and universities throughout the country, supported by a majority of professors. By late August and September the students were calling marches of 300,000 to 600,000 people; important contingents of workers and peasants participated regularly. Over the coming months, the student movement gained support from students outside the capital and other segments of society that continued to build until that October, despite several instances of violence. CNH Tactics Student brigades strained their creativity and skills to foil police and get the word out. Engineering students designed balloons which would burst when they got to a certain height and rain leaflets on the heads of pedestrians. Acting students put on realistic street theater in which a student and a conservative woman in pearls and heels carried out loud debates in crowded markets. Hundreds of observers would be drawn in, the majority on the side of the youth, and the advanced would be quietly contacted by “undercover” students in the crowd. Some students found that they and the barrio or slum dwellers spoke what seemed to be two different languages. They had to throw out “bookish” talk and learn from the vivid “caló” slang of the streets. After a full day of brigade work, they would spend the night in classrooms they had taken over, discussing the conditions and outrages the masses had exposed them to and figuring out how to use this new knowledge in their leaflets and agitation. The red and white buses of the IPN, always with some daring students and a loudspeaker perched on the roof, became famous for a kind of roving speak-in. Workers, market vendors, and even mariachi singers would climb up on the bus roof one after another to voice their support or disagreement with the students’ demands or tactics and to air their grievances. In some neighborhoods, just the appearance of an IPN bus was enough to immediately attract crowds of hundreds of people who would gather around. Students captured the spirit of the people in a way that the national government was never able to do. In fact, the national government was despised by its people. Mexican Government The turmoil of the 1960s in part reflected a widespread dissatisfaction among Mexicans with the rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The PRI was aptly described in 1968 as “entrenched, stagnant, and primarily self-serving” in the eyes of many Mexicans. The PRI controlled the nation with an iron fist for over 70 consecutive years. The party has been known to use violence, manipulation and corruption to win elections and hide information from the public, such as the details concerning the Tlatelolco massacre. President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz was known for an authoritarian manner of rule over his cabinet and country, despite Mexico being a democratic country. Luis Escheverria, Interior Secretary to Ordaz, was also known for a “no nonsense” attitude against student protesters. The Mexican government’s planned response to the student rally on the evening of October 2 was called Operation Galeano. The most definitive account of this operation, culminating with the Tlatelolco Massacre, is found in a Mexican special prosecutor’s report released in November 2006. According to this report, early on October 2 elements of the military’s Estado Mayor Presidencial (the Presidential High Command) were placed in apartments on the upper floors of the Chihuahua apartment building and other apartment buildings surrounding Tlatelolco’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Once the rally started, the Army, using from 5,000 to 10,000 soldiers (the accounts varying) and more than 300 tanks and other vehicles, would surround the plaza to prevent those attending the rally from fleeing, while armed military men in civilian clothes, members of a unit called the Batallón Olimpia that had been organized to help protect the Olympic Games, would prevent anyone from entering or leaving the Chihuahua apartment building, in which the organizers of the rally were to be arrested. The “planned” response of the government ended in bloodshed by the order of Luis Escheverria. Tlatelolco Massacre: The Event On October 1, the CNH held two rallies at UNAM. Speakers urged the thousands of students present to attend an October 2 rally at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, in the Tlatelolco area of Mexico City, to be followed by a march to Casco de Santo Tomás to demand the withdrawal of authorities from the IPN campus. On October 2, 1968, approximately 10,000 people, most of them students carrying red carnations, arrived in the vast colonial plaza of Tlatelolco for a demonstration. At 6:04 p.m. green and red flares dropped from helicopters, soldiers burst into the square, tanks blocked the exits and an elite plainclothes battalion stormed the speakers’ platform on the third-floor balcony of an apartment building, where the National Strike Committee, the leadership body of the student movement, was stationed and opened fire. The gunfire lasted for sixty-two minutes, then started again and continued for hours. Late in the evening, when the shooting finally ceased, scores of demonstrators lay dead and wounded–children and the elderly among them. The official government explanation of the incident was that armed provocateurs among the demonstrators, stationed in buildings overlooking the crowd, had begun the firefight. Suddenly finding themselves sniper targets, the security forces had simply returned the shooting in self-defense. By the next morning, newspapers reported that 20 to 28 people had been killed, hundreds wounded, and hundreds more arrested. Most of the Mexican media reported that the students provoked the army’s murderous response with sniper fire from the apartment buildings surrounding the plaza. El Día’s morning headline on October 3, 1968 read as followed: “Criminal Provocation at the Tlatelolco Meeting Causes Terrible Bloodshed.” The government-controlled media dutifully reported the Mexican government’s side of the events that night, painting the students as trouble makers who needed to be brought to order by any and all means necessary. Olympic Games 1968 Controversy The death of hundreds did not even phase the International Olympic Committee. They did not consider to cancelling the games, due to their belief that the massacre was an isolated event involving a social minority. On October 16, 1968, an action by two African-American sprinters at the Mexico City Olympics shook the sporting world. Tommie Smith and John Carlos, the gold and bronze medalists in the men’s 200-meter race, took their places on the podium for the medal ceremony barefooted and wearing civil rights badges, lowered their heads and each defiantly raised a black-gloved fist as the Star Spangled Banner was played to show their support for the student protesters and the Olympic Project for Human Rights. Some people (particularly IOC president Avery Brundage) felt that a political statement had no place in the international forum of the Olympic Games. In an immediate response to their actions, Smith and Carlos were suspended from the U.S. team by Brundage and banned from the Olympic Village. Those who opposed the protest said the actions disgraced all Americans. Supporters, on the other hand, praised the men for their bravery. Tlatelolco Massacre: Response and Investigation Some argue that an understanding of the domestic political context within Mexico explains why the government reacted in such a harsh manner. Mexico stayed relatively isolated from other foreign powers which provided them more freedom in their ability to deal with their domestic problems. The strongest censure from abroad that Mexico received for the massacre was a mild finger wagging from the representatives of a few foreign governments. The world’s failure to confront and condemn the actions of the Mexican government fueled the killing rampage throughout Mexico in the years to follow. In 1998, President Ernesto Zedillo, on the 30th anniversary of the Tlatelolco massacre, authorized a congressional investigation into the events of October 2. However, the PRI government continued its recalcitrance (defiance of authority) and did not release official government documents pertaining to the incident. Eventually in 2001, President Vicente Fox, the historic president that ended the 70-year reign of the PRI, attempted to resolve the greatest of these unanswered questions: who had orchestrated the massacre? President Fox ordered the release of previously classified documents concerning the 1968 massacre. The documents revealed that the students did not open fire first and showed that the snipers were members of the Presidential Guard, who were instructed to fire on the military forces in order to provoke them. President Fox also appointed Ignacio Carrillo Prieto in 2002 to prosecute those responsible for ordering the massacre. In June 2006, an ailing, 84-year-old Luis Echeverría was charged with genocide in connection with the massacre. He was placed under house arrest pending trial. In early July of that year, he was cleared of genocide charges, as the judge found that Echeverría could not be put on trial because the statute of limitations had expired. However, in March 2009, after a convoluted appeal process, the genocide charges against Echeverria were completely dismissed. Despite the ruling, prosecutor Carrillo Prieto said he would continue his investigation and seek charges against Echeverria before the United Nations International Court of Justice and the Inter-American Human Rights Commission. In October 2003, the role of the U.S. government in the massacre was publicized when the National Security Archive at George Washington University published a series of records from theCIA, the Pentagon, the State Department, the FBI and the White House which were released in response to Freedom of Information Act requests. The LITEMPO documents detail: That in response to Mexican government concerns over the security of the Olympic Games the Pentagon sent military radios, weapons, ammunition and riot control training material to Mexico before and during the crisis. That the CIA station in Mexico City produced almost daily reports concerning developments within the university community and the Mexican government from July to October. Six days before the massacre at Tlatelolco, both Echeverría and head of Federal Security (DFS) Fernando Guiterrez Barrios told the CIA that “the situation will be under complete control very shortly”. That the Díaz Ordaz government “arranged” to have student leader Sócrates Campos Lemus accuse dissident PRI politicians such as Carlos Madrazo of funding and orchestrating the student movement. Still, some today believe the United States government was only concerned with security and safety during the Olympic Games ’68 and was not involved in the Tlatelolco massacre in any form. Determining who is at fault however, will not change the events that occurred on October 2, 1968. The blood and tears shed that day are still fresh in the minds of those who witnessed the horrific event. Remembering Tlatelolco In 1993, a stele was erected to remember those who lost their lives. The former headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs is now a memorial museum called “Memorial 68” to remember the Mexican student demonstrations and the Tlatelolco massacre victims and survivors. Each year the anniversary of the Tlatelolco massacre is marked with a march to the same plaza and a protest for the release of government records. On October 2, 2008, the 40th anniversary, two marches were held in Mexico City to commemorate the event. One traveled from Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros (Teacher’s College) to the Zocalo. The other went from the Instituto Politecnico Nacional to the massacre site of the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. According to the “Comité del 68” (68 Committee), one of the organizers of the event, 40,000 marchers were in attendance. Unfortunately, still too many are unfamiliar with the events that occurred since the massacre fails to appear in most history textbooks. When asked how this could be, high school Headmaster Samuel Gonzalez Montano, replied, “You can’t teach anything that didn’t officially happen.” As of now, the newest generation of Mexicans only have a general knowledge of the events surrounding the ’68 Olympic Games, which are unavoidably intertwined. Gregory P. Groggel, a graduate of the University of Puget Sound, recounts: During a visit to the plaza, I encountered a group of boys playing soccer. When I inquired from one of them if he knew what happened in October of 1968 here in the plaza, he shrugged and looked around. I told him some 300 people died. He seemed lost and turned slowly to read the memorial he was sitting in front of and had lived near his whole life. The end of it reads: Who? Whom? No one. The next day, no one. The plaza awoke swept; The newspapers said for news the state of the weather. And on the television, on the radio, in the theaters, there was not a single change in the program, not a single announcement. Nor a moment of silence at the banquet (or following the banquet). The deaths of so many youths and protesters must not be forgotten. They deserve more than a simple moment of silence. Remember Tlatelolco. Fore, “those who can not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”(George Santayana)

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