The Coevolution of Human Immunity and Helminthic Parasites
The Coevolution of Human Immunity and Helminthic Parasites. Most multicellular organisms, both vertebrate and invertebrate, have an evolutionary history of infestation by extracellular parasitic worms known as helminths. The immune systems of these species have adapted to the stress of helminth infection, or helmnithiasis, through the development of mechanisms to modulate worm load in chronically infested individuals. Most marsupials and mammals, including humans, use a particular immune response mediated by IgE antibodies – molecules that identify and neutralize foreign objects – to defend against helminths (PoulsenThe Coevolution of Human Immunity and Helminthic Parasites
Strayer University University Communication System Project Proposal Planning
help writing Strayer University University Communication System Project Proposal Planning.
Assignment 1: Project Proposal – Initiation & Planning Worth 125 points Note: Information from Assignment 1 will be used to complete Assignments 2 and 4. Assignments 1, 2, and 4 will cover all aspects of the project life cycle relevant to the following project. VoIP / G-Suite Project University A and University B have closed on their merger. Per the merger, you have been hired as the Project Manager overseeing the deployment of a new VoIP phone system for the combined University and deployment of Google G-Suite to replace the University’s use of MS Office. Also, all of the school’s cell phones will be exchanged for the latest Google smartphone and the service provider will be Verizon Wireless. The combined University comprises fifty (50) campus locations and two (2) headquarters buildings. The combined university has over 10,000 employees serving over 100,000 students. The CIO is pressured to complete this project as soon as possible so that the combined universities can terminate their expensive license agreements with Microsoft. Note: All project submissions are submitted to Safe Assign for originality review. Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you define the scope of your project. In your paper you must: Provide a brief summary of the project. 2 Describe at least three (3) project goals and three (3) project objectives. Identify the key customer(s) and at least two (2) stakeholders for the project. Remember, you are delivering the project to your customer(s); however, there are others (stakeholders) who have a vested interest in the project. Describe at least three (3) key milestones and /or deliverables for the project. Describe a high-level timeline that includes key tasks and deadlines. Estimate the project’s overall cost and any key staffing and non-staffing resources needed. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Evaluate corporate strategy and the project life cycle phases to define and manage projects. Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment.
Strayer University University Communication System Project Proposal Planning
transition to sustainbility
transition to sustainbility.
geels – evolutionary reconfiguration.pdf Geels – institutional theory and change.pdf Geels – typology of transition pathways.pdf transition studies (1).pptx please answer these discussion questions 1- Something that I found immediately interesting in the “From sectoral systems…” article was Geels’ assertion that existing innovation system approaches focus mainly on the production side, and have much less to say in terms of the diffusion and use of a technology. This brings to mind two things.First, I remember reading an article awhile back on sustainability and marketing. I can’t remember who wrote it, but the author’s main point was that sustainability is currently a field dominated by academic theorists and scientists – two groups of people that have a “one and done” approach to information distribution. From this perspective, once a study has been done and/or an argument has been made, it is unnecessary to repeat the results of the study, or reiterate the argument. That piece is more or less finished, and it’s time to move on.A marketer, on the other hand, emphasizes the need to repeat, repeat, repeat. The driving assumption behind marketing is that it isn’t until a message is familiar to the point of tedium that people even really begin to notice.Second, production side focus reminds me of U.S. policy regarding the integration of renewable energy sources, and specifically the Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Program, famous for funding both Tesla and Solyndra. The idea behind the DEP program was to ensure loans to energy innovation ventures that might otherwise have difficulty obtaining funding. This, the argument went, would help firms cross the “innovation valley of death” which represents the difficulty of taking an R&D product and bringing it to full commercialization. However, the program in practice tended to have a difficult time really pushing innovation.How much of this can be attributed to a “if you build it, they will come” mentality? It seems as though the assumption behind both these examples is that all that needs to be done is that a productive machine be built, and once the product is being cranked out, the rest of the pieces will just fall into place.However, any marketer will tell you – people tend to not just buy a product because it’s the best product, or most rational, or whatever. There is a gigantic industry completely focused on the social diffusion on products. Why should we assume that that adoption of innovation from innovative systems would be any different?All this being said, I think that Geels’ focus on user side integration, adoption, and appropriation is really important. And, as he notes, adoption is not a passive act, but requires its own adaptations and innovations. I know that as the readings continue, Geels focuses a lot on rules and regimes, and eventually the transition from system to system takes center stage, but I wanted to take a minute to appreciate how profound Geels’ early suggestion is in the context of current assumptions about adoption.2- In thinking more about Danielle’s discussion thread, I am still trying to clarify the rules section of the reading.At one point in the readings/powerpoint it is indicated that regimes are collections of the three inter-related rules… if niches make up regimes and when combined change the landscape, does that mean that all aspects are constrained by the same three types of rules that are initially dictated through the regimes? Or can rules exist separate in niches, regimes, and landscapes?Another question I have is in regards to the transition pathways. If reproduction, realignment, substitution, and reconfiguration all lead to change, is one better than the other? If I am understanding correctly it seems that transitions that allow niches to break through and/or combine with regimes make the biggest impact however it seems that a larger issue must occur in order for the niches and regimes to move forward.3- The first piece by Geels we read was slightly overwhelming and technical for me, but it did help me understand the different levels of systems that were referenced in the lecture, especially regimes, which Geels essentially says (in socio-technical systems) are systems of various kinds of rules that may be interdependent. Geels states, “I understand regimes as semi-coherent sets of rules, which are linked together. It is difficult to change one rule, without altering others. The alignment between rules gives a regime stability, and “strength” to coordinate activities.” Because the readings have been largely theoretical up to this point, I tried to come up with an example of a regime (a system of linked rules), such as Geels gives on P. 906, that I could use to help myself better understand the rules within regimes, how they are linked together.I came up with the act of attending elementary school in the United States.Regulative rules in this case might be federal or state laws about education, about truancy, what must be taught, attendance policies, test procedures, dress codes, etc—all of the federal, state, and local regulations within the education system.Normative rules might be things like how it is appropriate to act in school, rules about how to complete homework, how to behave, how to dress, how to interact with teachers and other students.Cognitive rules might be patterns and pedagogies of teaching, how and how quickly student should advance in different subjects, the use of different methods/schema of education, and ideas about the importance of education.I tried to see how these types rules might be interdependent: If regulative rules divide students into grades with certain academic standards, for example, it follows that teachers who teach different grades might have different ideas about what methods of teaching are best (cognitive rules). And if the regulative rules change (the school dress code changes to allow jeans, for example), it is easy to see how normative rules might change (it becomes cool to wear acid wash jeans to class). Interconnectedness could play out here too. In this case, the regime of elementary education might be interconnected with the regime of the standard workweek and office employment, as far as normative rules are concerned. The system of the school day reinforces the workweek schedule for working parents—you try to work M-F 8am-4pm, when your kids are at school, right?My discussion question is: do I have the right interpretation of this, or am I thinking about it wrong? What changes would you make? Or, if you want, come up with your own example of a “regime” and the regulative, normative, and cognitive rules that might be linked together within that system of rules. What might these rules be? What other regimes might your regime be dependent on or linked with?4- As I read Geels’ article’s, I found it really it hard to follow. But with reading his article and the power point from the first week. What I make of the articles is to go from a niche to a regime, you have to understand the purpose and function of what your creating. In order to do that you have to use actors (humans), knowledge, technology, rules and guidelines in order for it to be at lease stable enough for the landscape.The best example I can come up with is how we went from house and buggy (niche) to motor car (regime). Now we are developing new ways to get from point a to point b with out the use of motors and oils but with using the recourses (landscape) we have around us. I do believe they plan on using the magnetic plates in the ground to help car hover. Reducing the air population making the planet more sustainable for our future generation.Do I have the right idea of this concept? 5- Hi Group,One topic that Geels’ white paper addresses is “windows of opportunity” for the breakthrough of new ideas and technologies. Geels’ explains that these windows of opportunity present themselves when “tensions and mismatches occur” (p. 914). This concept is a bit hard for me to grasp in terms of changing landscapes. Geels’ describes landscapes as “beyond the direct influence of actors, and cannot be changed at will. Material environments, shared cultural beliefs, symbols and values are hard to deviate from. They form ‘gradients’ for action” (p. 913). If landscapes are “beyond the direct influence of actors”, how exactly do they change?I suppose this means actors have indirect influence on the landscape, and there must also be an unstable environment that will allow change. Can anyone think of a concrete example of landscape change that is “beyond the direct influence of actors”? Do I have Geels’ interpretation of “beyond the direct influence of actors” correct, or is there anything you would add?
transition to sustainbility
Language Reflecting Our Culture And Reality Cultural Studies Essay
Language is “a system of symbols that allows members of a society to communicate with one another”. It is more than just a mean of communication. It can also be viewed as an important element in shaping our culture and the perception of reality. This paper will focus on the relationship between language, culture and reality; also how media and gender culture have influences on the relationship. With the help of different scholars view, we can analysis how language reflect our culture and reality. Linguists have studied the relationship between language and culture by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. It accounts the differences in language across culture. According to the hypothesis, “language is a guide to social reality” which state that language is attaching to the real world. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis indicates the strong relationships among culture, language and reality into a cohesive whole. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis shows that “people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language” which can be easily understood with the diagram below. In other words, language acts like the lens on a camera in filtering reality, “Language is the medium by which one views the world, culture, reality and thought”. This example is best to illustrate the crux of the hypothesis “reality for a culture is discoverable in its language.” There are two important aspects in the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, they are vocabulary and grammar and syntax of a language. Let me give a personal experience to state the above concept. I was an exchange student after graduating from secondary school and stayed in a host family in the United States. People there love to party and are addicted to alcohol. They get different words referring to different forms of alcohol, including liquor, brew, booze, wine, beer, drink, firewater, shooter, etc. The point of telling my experience is that these terms are rarely used in Hong Kong because we rarely encounter alcohol other than beer and wine. We can see that it has a particularly rich vocabulary for alcohol, which shows that it is an important thing in American culture. Culture is evident not only in the vocabulary but also the grammar and syntax. I studied German during that exchange year, and found that the grammar and context is so different between Chinese and German. There are no articles, a, an, the counted with the noun in Chinese. In German, each noun must be categorized as either feminine or masculine with the collocation of the articles der, die, and das. This shows us that the grammatical gender is an essential part in German culture. However, there are arguments that against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, one is made by Fiona Cowie, “There are in the grammar observations that apply to all languages; these observations constitute what one calls general grammar”. In examining this thought, some cultures and languages are related to each other and have similarities. It contradicts with the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis which states that all cultures see the world differently according to their language. In addition, Tomas Tsoi argued that language carries little tendency in our thinking, and it cannot constitute with what Sapir-Whorf has suggested to be habitual thought. His evidences are if language indeed reflects world view, there are totally different world views among the same linguistic group, while people speaking different languages share similar world views. Besides, he also argues that how does a multilingual holds his world view if it is dependent on languages, because it will lead to contradiction. How do people come to understand the reality? The cultural environment that people grow up in can have surprising effects on how they interpret the world around them. This happens by way of different agents of socialization. Media is one of the important socialization in reinforcing the cultural environment and the perception of reality, but so are family, school and peers. Media showers society with languages and images everyday. These images are delivered to the public through a variety of mediums, such as television, radio, newspaper. Language is a basic medium in the establishment of reality. Media act as a conduit in transmitting the image of reality. In other words, language reflects the culture and reality of its users. Media are never neutral for providing information. The images which we think depictions of reality are actually shaped, because they are filtered through media to the general public. The mass media acts as a translator and bridges the gap. Racism, prejudice and discrimination are all perpetrated through media discourse. This is why people need to have a high potential of media competence to decode what is being said. From the essay which is written by Ray Surette, he stated that the social construction of reality have influences on different individual. People construct their social reality based upon their interaction with an objective reality with their first hand experiences. Thus, the information they receive from a culture’s reality, such as language and the media create a subjective reality that directs their social behavior. In urbanized societies, the mass media play a crucial role in the social construction of reality because knowledge of many social phenomena is obtained solely through the media. The mass media has become the dominant player in America. Furthermore, when other sources of knowledge are not available, the media play a greater role in the construction and dissemination of social reality. In fact, media convey different ideologies. Under the influences of powerful groups, it is hard for media to strike balance between facts and different ideologies. Therefore, audiences should bear the responsibility to distinguish message that are being delivered. The concept of media literacy is found to overcome the distortion of the truth from the messages that are created by the media. It is “a process of accessing, analyzing, evaluating and creating messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres and forms”. According to Jane Tallim, “media literacy is the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us every day”. By activating the concept of media literacy, people gain greater awareness of the potential for misrepresentation, especially through commericals and public relations techniques, and to understand the role of mass media in constructing views of reality. Moreover, media conveys a distinct message regarding gender and gender roles which leads us to the topic of language and gender. Males represent “face-isms”, their faces are shown more often than their bodies, which is associated with character and intellect. Since women are being objectitfication as a sex appeal product, females represent “body-isms” or partial-isms” which is associated with weight and emotion. The topic of language and gender concerns in which men and women use their language differently and how the structure of language reflects or promotes gender division within a society. All of us have different styles of communicating with other people. The styles that men and women use to communicate have been described as debate vs. relate, report-talk vs. rapport-talk, or competitive vs. cooperative. Men often seek straightforward solutions to problems whereas women tend to establish intimacy by discussing problems with the frequency usage of tag questions. Dale Spender writes “males, the dominant group, have constructed sexism and developed a language trap in their own interest.” This makes the male in the superior position and lead to sexism in language. Men have made their world out of their reality, and women are forced to live with these meanings. Another scholar, Shiela Rowbotham says “If she enters mankind she loses herself to him…she represents a woman but he is mankind”. Women lose their roles in society because they are considered to go along with the rest of mankind, instead of womankind. The Interpretation Act was an act that was passed in England in 1850 that simplified the language that was used in statutes, legally enabling “he” to be written instead of “he or she”. This Act was passed in order to promote the primacy of the male. At that time, there were no women in Parliament to vote against this Act, so it was being passed. It constructed that females had to adhere to a male reality for the world. Spender suggests, “In order for the women of today to make their own reality, they must understand how the creation of this world is accomplished”. The way to accomplish the above thought is to explore the relationship between language, culture and reality. Therefore, gender equality is a reality many people would like to bring out and our language should reflect this. According to Spender, “By changing our language we help change reality in a way that makes our language more accurate”. If we change our language, we are to some extent manipulating the social reality. That is an ideology matter and somehow a paradox of socially constructed realities. Our language and society reflect one another, it is important for us to recognize and respect change in the meaning and the acceptability of words. As a conclusion, the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has changed the way many people look at language. Elaine Chaika states “Language and society are so intertwined that it is impossible to understand one without the other. There is no human society that does not depend on, is not shaped by, and does not itself shape language” This statement best defines the relationship between languages, culture and reality. Language does not only shape the way reality is perceived but reality also shapes language. For my standpoint there is no sound system to reflect our culture and reality through language. Language does influence culture and perception of reality but language does not govern culture or reality.