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1. Present data in an effective way 2. Edit for professional style

1. Present data in an effective way 2. Edit for professional style.

Visual elements, such as graphs, charts, tables, photographs, diagrams, and maps capture your readers’ attention and help them understand your ideas. They are like illustrations that help tell the story. These visuals help to augment your written ideas and simplify complicated textual descriptions. If the visuals are presented poorly or are not addressed properly within the document, they will not be as effective as we intend them to be. undefinedIn this mini assignment, you are asked to choose a visual (a graph, image, plot, or a table) that you intend to use in your final report/paper and edit it for a professional style, as we discussed in the Lecture. You are then asked to write a paragraph and explain the visual and significance of the presented data or concept. You must mention how this visual contributes to your final report/paper at the end of the paragraph. As a reminder, any presented visual must include a number and a caption; the visual must be addressed using the figure/table numbers within the paragraph. Avoid addressing a visual by referring to the position of the visual such as the figure/table above or the figure/table below. undefinedPlease note that equations are not figures; thus, they do not require a caption. You will use an independent numbering system on the right-hand side of the equation to show the sequence. You will refer to the equations by calling the equation numbers. If you needed to cite the equation’s source, you must use in-text citation within the sentence you called the equation. Please refer to the lecture slides for detailed information. undefinedIt is not professional to copy and paste someone else’s visual and simply cite the source. You must recreate this visual and offer a new perspective/look. If it is a table you must create a table with a different point of view (only use the data that is useful to you). If you are using a plot, you must generate the plot by extracting the data from the source image and show what part of the data is important to you. If you are using a flow chart or a concept map, you must recreate it with a new look. Ideally, you want to combine data from various sources and present them in one visual.
1. Present data in an effective way 2. Edit for professional style

Introduction Innovation is a term that is now a buzzword in AXA Ireland. Ten years ago, the term would have been found only in consultants’ power point presentations and researchers’ works. Providentially, it was also found in the thoughts of John O’Neil, newly appointed chief executive officer of AXA Ireland at that time. John O’Neil was mandated to stir the company through stiff competition and amidst a down economy onto a strong financial repositioning. He felt he could only achieve the turnaround by implementing a major program of change, where all the employees were involved in the business transformation. He decided then to initiate the development of a culture of innovation within the company, and signaled this initiative by appointing an innovation manager in the person of Catherine Whelan. That appointment saw the progressive emergence of a number of innovation programs that proved very successful despite the hurdles that these programs underwent. After six years since the innovation idea was hatched, financial reports, particularly for years 2001-2004, showed dramatic improvements. In addition, innovation initiatives have moved the customer satisfaction index by 20 points, got 80% of AXA employees to directly participate in innovation activities or programs, and generated 5000 creative suggestions 3000 of which were already implemented. It would seem evident that the change program was achieving a considerable measure of success. It would be interesting to know how it was done, what problems were encountered, and given the chance to do it all over again, how it could have been done better. It would even be more interesting for scholars and researchers and professional managers to know if the programs followed any pattern or patterns at all in relation to theories and concepts in management science, particularly organizational development and human resource management. Finally, if any successes or patterns were exhibited, could these be sustained continuously? Objectives The main objective of this paper is to critically analyze the developments that transpired in AXA Ireland from the time it started implementing its innovation program in 1999 up to the end period of this study. The analysis will particularly dwell on the initiatives taken by the company to create and maintain a culture of innovation, and the results of these initiatives in relation to relevant theories and concepts in organizational development and human resource management. The analysis will attempt to answer the questions as to whether the initiatives brought about the desired results, and if not, why these did not come about and how things could have been done better. Consequently, as culture and innovation are two critical issues that impact substantially on human resources and the entire organization, the analysis will attempt to establish a linkage if any, between the initiatives taken for organizational change and the challenges they brought upon human resource management. Creating a New Culture from Ground Zero Innovation is not like a chocolate candy that children, or for that matter employees, will run after. In fact, its own loose definition, that of change, is the very reason people resist it. That is why, when John O’Neil decided to introduce it as a major item of change, the idea presented an enormous challenge to Catherine: AXA Ireland had almost none of it in place, employees were skeptical about it, there was no substantial precedent to serve as a model or springboard, and it was not the best of time economically. Yet given the mandate they carried on their shoulders which was to achieve a competitive advantage, it would seem that innovation was the very item they needed to put the company back on stream. It would seem like they ran to an end wall where it was written: Innovate or Perish, to borrow a phrase from Morrissy (2010). Sifting through the different programs and activities that the company pursued in the name of innovation throughout the period up to 2006, the following were implemented: The AXA MadHouse – a team-based fun-learning program for stimulating creativity and generating business ideas. The program was introduced in late 1999, partly simulating Edward de Bono’s six colored hats, a metaphor-based critical thinking process. The AXA Quadrant – create, eliminate, reuse and improve – an innovation awareness program introduced to make the employees understand the meaning of innovation in AXA. The Quadrant became a symbol that was adopted into the mouse pads and screen savers of computers within the company, and assisted the employees to calculate the financial value of each creative idea they would generate. TaskMasters – a MadHouse idea on innovation involving internal procedures. The program aimed to put the innovative thinking habit as part of the employees’ daily mental frame and work activities. It involved checking that what the employees were doing was adding value to the customer relationship and addressed even the smallest issues that needed quick resolution. The Innovation Corridor – another MadHouse idea that was quickly implemented. The Corridor referred to the hallway leading to the staff restaurant that was converted to become a facility and venue for announcing news and developments on innovation within the company. It sought to reinforce the importance of innovation as a means of achieving business objectives. The AXA Broker Partner program – a competition involving the generation of ideas for improving service delivery among AXA’s brokers. The competition was an attempt to expand the innovation mentality from the employees to the distribution across boundaries. Going the Extra Mile (GEM) – a program to improve customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention, replacing TaskMasters and MadHouse. GEM was an idea that was sourced from outside the company and allowed AXA to tap into internal and external resources. As a marketing strategy, AXA promoted and encouraged, as part of GEM, five brand behaviors – professionalism, integrity, pragmatism, innovation and team spirit – using five cartoon super heroes. To make sure that the message was delivered clearly to its audience, the company set up a PIPITS daily newsletter during the customer service week. GEM was a customer-based idea generation program. The key idea was to encourage the staff to implement one innovative idea to improve customer service (meaning faster and less expensive), and that idea should come from the customers. Idea authors were rewarded and recognized. The Qualitas Program – another customer service innovation focused on promoting service quality, using the Jigsaw globe as the symbol of AXA’s commitment to get everybody involved. With the intranet as the vehicle, the Qualitas was promoted daily to drive home the message of service quality. By this time, recognition was made via a monthly quality day, monthly awards, an annual innovation award and exceptional performance awards. The New Deal Program – a three-year new change program to create an AXA differentiation based on service quality, using innovation at a product, process, service and people level. “It is about providing a new deal for AXA customers through the quality of service delivery, innovation and cost efficiency.” Initially, corresponding awards and recognition were given. These incentives were later incorporated into the compensation and linked to the performance management system. The Global AXA Way – a six-year program using Six Sigma methodology to make the voice of the customer a core business process element. Six Sigma is a business strategy that focuses on improving process quality by removing the causes of defects or errors using a six-level rating system indicating the defect level in the process (Adams et al, 2003). High hopes had been pinned on the Six Sigma program, that it would lead AXA to double its revenues and triple its profits by 2012. As of time of analysis, no financial data are available for AXA Ireland to serve as basis for a comparative result analysis. An update, however, was published on March 30, 2010 regarding AXA Ireland’s credit standing on Standard

MATH 160 Cuyamaca College One Sample T Hypothesis Test Worksheet

MATH 160 Cuyamaca College One Sample T Hypothesis Test Worksheet.

I’m working on a statistics discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Progress CheckUse this activity to assess whether you and your peers can: Use StatCrunch to conduct a hypothesis experiment to check a claim about a population mean.State an appropriate conclusion in context.Explain the meaning of each relevant item from the StatCrunch output.Learn by DoingIn this lab you will learn how to use StatCrunch to conduct a hypothesis experiment for a population mean using StatCrunch.Some features of this activity may not work well on a cell phone or tablet. We highly recommend that you complete this activity on a computer.Use the rubric at the bottom of this page as a guide for completing this assignment.A list of StatCrunch directions is provided after the Prompt section below.DirectionsSubmit your work:Carefully read all sections below (beginning with the Context section and ending with the Prompt section).Commit a good-faith effort to address all items in the Prompt section below. Please be sure to number your responses.If directed to do so, embed all required StatCrunch output in your initial submission. Please do not submit StatCrunch output as an attachment.Complete your assigned peer reviews:After you submit your initial good-faith attempt, continue to the ANSWER(S) page and review your instructor’s response. But please do not submit your corrected work yet.Within three days after the due date, return to this assignment and complete your assigned peer reviews (directions (Links to an external site.)).Submit your corrected work:We all learn from mistakes (our own and our classmates’ mistakes). So please do not immediately correct your own mistakes. If possible, wait until you receive feedback from at least one of your peers. If necessary, correct your work and resubmit the entire assignment – including any required StatCrunch output. Your instructor will only review and grade your most recent submission, so please do not refer to a previous submission.ContextA group of 75 college students from a liberal arts college were randomly sampled and asked about the number of alcoholic drinks they have in a typical week. The file containing the data is linked below. The purpose of this study (Links to an external site.) was to compare the drinking habits of the students at the college to the drinking habits of college students in general. In particular, the dean of students, who initiated this study, would like to check whether the mean number of alcoholic drinks that students at his college have in a typical week differs from the mean of U.S. college students in general, which is estimated to be 4.73.VariablesThe number of alcoholic beverages a student consumes in a week.DataDownload the drinks (Links to an external site.) data file and then upload the datafile in StatCrunch.PromptThe drinks datafile is available in the Data section below.Let μ be the mean number of alcoholic beverages that students in the liberal arts college drink in a typical week. State the hypotheses.Here is a histogram of the data. Can we safely use the t-test with this data? Explain.Perform the t-test using StatCrunch. (directions)Copy and paste the information from the StatCrunch output window into your initial post.Based on the P-value, state your conclusions in context. Use a 5% level of significance. NOTE: You do not need to double the P-value for this two-tailed experiment. StatCrunch calculates the P-value for you.Using the context of this scenario, explain the meaning of each of following items from the StatCrunch output for the hypothesis experiment.Std. Err (standard error)T-stat (T-score)P-valueList of StatCrunch DirectionsEach link will open in a new window. To return to this discussion, either close the new tab or select the tab for this discussion. Purchase StatCrunch (You only need to do this once.)Open StatCrunchDownload Excel Data FileUpload Excel Data File to StatCrunchDownload StatCrunch Output Window (no screenshots; please use these directions)Upload Files into Your Stat-Class Folder in CanvasCopy & Paste a StatCrunch TableConduct a T-test using StatCrunchHere is a PDF document with all StatCrunch directions (Links to an external site.).RubricPeer Reviewed Assignment w/ StatCrunchPeer Reviewed Assignment w/ StatCrunchCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAddressing the Prompt6 ptsFull MarksAll parts of the Prompt are addressed. Answers are correct. Statistical vocabulary is used appropriately. Writing is clear and thought process is easy to follow.4 ptsPartial CreditSome parts of the prompt are not addressed, are incorrect, or are unclear.0 ptsNo MarksThe prompt is not addressed.6 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStatCrunch Data2 ptsFull MarksAppropriate StatCrunch graphs and/or tables are provided as directed.1 ptsPartial CreditStatCrunch graphs and tables are inappropriate or missing important information.0 ptsNo MarksNo StatCrunch information is provided.2 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIndividual Penalty0 ptsNo individual penalty-1 ptsIndividual penalty.Please see the instructor comments for more information.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePeer Reviews2 ptsFull MarksYou completed all assigned peer reviews (maximum of 2). For each peer review, the points you assigned in the rubric are appropriate. You included comments explaining the score you posted in the rubric. If you deducted points in the rubric, your comments explain what the author needs to do to earn a higher grade when the teacher grades the assignment.1 ptsPartial CreditCommitted a good-faith effort to provide a high-quality peer review, but many necessary instructive comments are missing.0 ptsNo MarksNo peer review provided or the comments are not instructive.2 ptsTotal Points: 10
MATH 160 Cuyamaca College One Sample T Hypothesis Test Worksheet

PSY790 Final Grant Proprosal

online homework help PSY790 Final Grant Proprosal. Paper details Child and Adolescents Anxiety Program being used in study is “Coping Cats”. I have provided link for program: https://www.cebc4cw.org/program/coping-cat/ Follow rubric carefully Please be sure to add how this program will be effective in the community (Florida,US). – Narrative What ethical concerns are there regarding the program? – ethics Now that the program is being implemented what problems do I see? Have to maintain competence. Are there dual relationships in the community between providers and families of the children? – ethics How is this program going to help the community? Age range of target (12-18). Will be implemented in a community center. – NarrativePSY790 Final Grant Proprosal

1. Do wars require aggressors? Many observers of WWI have argued that the Great Powers had stumbled into a

1. Do wars require aggressors? Many observers of WWI have argued that the Great Powers had stumbled into a war all would have preferred to avoid. During the Cold War, many worried the United States and the USSR might repeat these mistakes and inadvertently start a mutually destructive nuclear war. Others note how the United States and the Soviet Union managed to avoid war despite numerous crises, and argue that wars typically require a truly aggressive state such as Nazi Germany in WWII. How concerned should we be about inadvertent war? 2. What role did nuclear weapons play in the Cold War? How has that role changed today, if at all? Do nuclear weapons cause peace or risk enormously destructive war, if not extinction? Would it be wise to get rid of nuclear weapons? Alternatively, should we reduce arsenal sizes? Take other measures to make nuclear war less likely? Defend your answer and provide historical illustrations to support your case. 3. How important have pathological ideas been as a cause of war? Over the course of the semester, we’ve discussed how militarism, imperialism, fascism, nationalism, and racism may have influenced the outbreak of Great Power wars. Some would go so far as to argue that such pathological ideas are a prime cause of international conflict. To what degree would you agree with this and why? If ideas do play an important role in causing war, what can we do about it? 4. It is commonly asserted in the public discourse that religion and ideology are major drivers of war. Many see the Cold War as having been about ideology, the implication being that had the United States and the Soviet Union not been so divided ideologically, the Cold War could have been averted. Do you agree with this assessment? Why or why not? 5. There has not been a war among the Great Powers since WWII: we are currently living in a “Long Peace” that has lasted 76 years and counting. What are the most important factors that account for this? Is the current peace likely to endure? What might change that? Some have argued that this Long Peace is so stable and durable that we should concern ourselves with issues such as terrorism, nuclear nonproliferation, and regional and civil conflict rather than the promotion of peace among the Great Powers. Do you agree with this assessment? Why or why not?

Tracing the Development of Verdi’s Opera through his Three Periods: What Changed and What Remained the Same? Essay

Music is described as a form of art, which uses sound and silence as media. Some of the most common elements of music include pitch and rhythm.1 Opera is one of the forms of art, which involves an artist performing a dramatic piece by combining text and musical elements.2 Opera is part and parcel of the western tradition, which includes classical music from Italy. Francesco Verdi was a romantic Italian opera composer. He is one of the most influential romantic composers of the 19th century. His works dominate the opera industry centuries after they were produced.3 In this essay, the development of Verdi’s opera will be traced through his three periods. An analysis of what changed in the three periods, as well as what remained the same, will be provided. Giuseppe Fortunino Francessco Verdi was born on 27th January, 1813,4 in the French empire. Together with his family, he moved to Busseto, where he began building his career in music.5 He used to visit libraries in the local school, as well as opera and concerts. At the age of twenty, he moved to Milan for further studies. He later returned to Busseto where he became a music teacher. At the time, he already had vast experience in the composition and performance of operas.6 One of his most ardent supporters was Antonio Barezzi, who allowed Verdi to hold his first public performance at his home. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first public performance took place in 1830,7 when Verdi was barely seventeen years old. Verdi wrote his first opera, Orberto, when he was twenty eight. His first composition was released in 1841. The love he had for his family inspired his music. However, he lost this beloved family at a very tender age. His two children died at a very young age, and shortly afterwards, his wife succumbed to encephalitis. The tragic turn of events was a big blow to Verdi and his musical career. He was depressed as a result of the tragedy. Verdi neglected his passion for several months. However, he came back to life and composed a comic opera titled ‘King for a day’.8 Sadly, the comic was not well received by the public. The lacklustre performance of this piece aggravated Verdi’s situation.9 For a period of several months, Verdi neglected his writing. He was jolted back to reality when he came across a play, which motivated him to compose what Koestenbaum refers to as ‘musical score’.10 The venture, which was titled ‘Nabuco’, turned out as one of his greatest compositions. Critics hailed the piece as a success, which encouraged Verdi to continue writing operas. We will write a custom Essay on Tracing the Development of Verdi’s Opera through his Three Periods: What Changed and What Remained the Same? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The musical score was well received when it was performed for the first time.11 Some of Verdi’s compositions, which have received widespread support from members of the public, include Attila, Ernani, and Macbeth.12 Throughout his career in music, Verdi was constantly forced to change his writing style to meet the emerging demands and changes in the society. At the start of his career in the mid 19th century, the demand for romantic music was high. In the period just after 1850, the situation changed and the demand shifted to drama. People viewed dramatic operas as morally right compared to romantic operas. The music industry underwent further evolution in the early 1970s with the increasing demand for comic operas. To address these changes, Verdi had to adjust his writing style. The development of his compositional writing is divided into three periods. The periods are initial recognition era, the great master Era, and the twilight era. The periods incorporate different compositional styles and techniques, which are strongly linked to the changes in the society and the changes that occurred in Verdi’s personal life and growth. The initial recognition era spanned from 1838 to 1851, when Verdi had just started his career in opera music. The exemplary performance of his first opera, Oberto, marked the beginning of his musical career. The performance earned him three contracts, which he worked on for the next two years. The first composition was a comic opera titled ‘Un Giorno di Regno’. It performed poorly and failed to attract enough support from the public.13 The composition took place during a romantic era, which made many people view comic opera as out of place. Depression arising from the death of his wife and children is blamed for the poor quality of this composition. Not sure if you can write a paper on Tracing the Development of Verdi’s Opera through his Three Periods: What Changed and What Remained the Same? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At this point, Verdi vowed to quit music as a career. It took a lot of persuasion from Merelli to bring him back to the industry. Verdi had to stick to romantic operas during that period for him to remain relevant in the music industry. The following decade saw Verdi compose a number of operas that did fairly well in the music world. The decade is described as the composer’s galley years.14 The Great Master Era spanned from 1851 to 1871. During this period, Verdi was already doing well in his career as an opera writer. The beginning of this era is traced back to Verdi’s affair with Gieseppina Strepponi.15 Many regarded the couple’s marriage as scandalous. Unlike other operas composed in his initial recognition era, Rigoletto, one of his operas during the period, was accompanied by a music band. Verdi composed two main pieces in this era. He continued to produce high quality pieces in the period spanning from 1855 to 1867. There were no major interruptions in his career during this period.16 During this period, there was a high demand for drama in the society. Verdi’s music was not spared by this demand. Macbeth, one of his compositions during this period, is considered as one of his most important and original early works. It was an adaptation of a play composed by his favourite dramatist, Shakespeare. Lack of a romantic story behind the opera serves as an evidence of Verdi’s shift from romantic writing to dramatic writing. La traviata, another of Verdi’s operas during the period, is also dramatic. The title itself means ‘the fallen woman’ or ‘the woman who goes astray’. It is based on the life of Violetta, who has just recovered from an illness, and her encounters with her two suitors. Another opera by Verdi during the period is Rigoletto. Rigoletto revolves around Duke, Rigoletto and the curse that was placed on them. Rigoletto encourages Duke to seduce his daughter. At the end, she is opposed to the whole idea.17 His compositions during this period involved the use of drama. On the contrary, the previous era was characterised by romantic operas. Aida is one of the most popular pieces written in this era. The opera was performed during the grand opening of the Suez Canal in Cairo, Egypt. It was an instant hit, which marked the climax of Verdi’s Great Master Era.18 The twilight era spanned between 1872 and 1893. During this time, Verdi spent most of his time revising some of the scores written in the past. For instance, he created new versions of such operas as ‘Don Carlos’, ‘La Forza del destino’, and ‘Simon Boccanegra’. Verdi’s last opera was ‘Falstall’, which was based on ‘The Merry Wife of Windsor’, another comic play by Shakespeare.19 The opera enjoyed unprecedented international success. It was translated to English by Victor Hugo. Humour in the opera serves as an evidence of Verdi’s shift from dramatic to comic writing. As already indicated in this essay, various changes took place in Verdi’s writing career.20 During his first era, Verdi was more of a romantic than a comic writer. The period was referred to as the romantic era. The romance is evident in most of his compositions. One of them is ‘Oberto’. In this opera, one of the characters, Riccardo, arrives at the palace and begins to sing, “Here I am amongst you! The day hasted by my desire has now arrived”. The phrase is romantic given that Riccardo is attempting to express his love for Leonora. The voice used in the opera ranges from bass, soprano, mezzo-soprano and tenor. The three types of voices, which are provided by characters, are used to create rhythm in the opera. During the first era, Verdi’s family served as a source of inspiration.21 For instance, his wife’s passion for music largely contributed to his success. The death of his son, daughter, and wife was a big blow to his career in music composition. He emerged from the resulting depression as a dramatist, with most of his works devoid of love stories.22 The changes in the first era are largely attributed to the depression brought about by the sudden loss of his entire family and the various changes in the world of music. During his second era, Verdi concentrated on drama. In the opera ‘Macbeth’, one of the characters, Macbeth, is quoted as saying, “Is this a dagger which I see before me?” The phrase is dramatic given that it portrays Macbeth’s hunger for power. Verdi used various types of voices to create melody and rhythm in this opera. The voices include baritone, soprano, bass, tenor, mezzo-soprano, as well as silence. Verdi composed several plays during this period. His shift from a romantic writer to a play writer was attributed to the fact that dramatic opera had become morally acceptable, which was not the case in the romantic era. One of the most popular operas composed in this era was ‘Rigoletto’. During the third era, Verdi started writing comics.23 The shift from a play writer to a comic writer is largely attributed to socio-economic changes in the music industry. In the opera ‘Falstaff’, Falstaff tells his servants, “Honour! You rogues, honour is intangible and cannot be either eaten or felt, such as hair being pulled or being saved from death by honour!” The phrase is comical given that Falstaff rebukes the servants after they refuse to deliver a letter to his married mistresses, claiming they are honourable. In this opera, various voices were used to create melody and rhythm. They include baritone, soprano, mezzo-soprano, contralto, tenor, bass, and silence. Several aspects of Verdi’s writing remained the same throughout his three periods. One of the most notable constants in Verdi’s works is that he remained an opera writer throughout his career as a musician.24 In spite of changing the quality of his compositions, and in spite of shifting from a romantic writer to a dramatic writer (and later to a comic writer), Verdi only produced operas.25 Examples of Verdi’s operas spread over the three eras include ‘Oberto’, ‘Macbeth’, and Falstaff. In all the operas, Verdi avoided applying the high C note, which he claimed distracted him. In addition, he always took advantage of his gift in melody to make musical impressions. In conclusion, it is important to note that just like any other facet of human society, music has undergone changes. What this means is that many changes have taken place in the music industry. Musical evolution is significantly influenced by artists trying to improve their skills and expertise in the field.26 Verdi, a renowned opera musician, was not spared from such changes. He was constantly forced to change his writing style. Changes among the audience forced the artist to modify his style to meet the new demands during his career, which is divided into three distinct eras. The three eras are initial recognition era, the great master era, and the twilight era.27 The three eras saw Verdi change his style from that of a romantic writer, to a dramatic writer and later, to a comic writer. However, certain aspects of Verdi’s music remained constant throughout the three eras. The quality of his work explains his fame in the music industry to date.28 Bibliography Ashcroft, Bill. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-colonial Literatures. London: Routledge, 2009. Brener, Milton. The Forgotten Man in Opera Offstage: Passion and Politics behind the Great Operas. London: Robson Books, 2003. Budden, James. The Operas of Verdi, Volume I. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2003. Budden, James. The Operas of Verdi, Volume II. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2004. Budden, James. The Operas of Verdi, Volume III. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2005. Budden, John. The Operas of Verdi. London: Oxford University Press, 2003. DeVan, Gilles. Verdi’s. Creating Drama through Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. Dizikes, John. Opera in America: A Cultural History. London: Yale University Press, 2003. Erasmi, Gabriele. Norma Ed Aida: Momenti Estremi Della Concezione Romantica. Studi Verdiani: Petrobelli, 2004. Harwood, Dane. “Universals in Music: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology.” Ethnomusicology 20, no. 4 (2006): 521–533. Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West. Bedford: St. Martin’s, 2009. Kamien, Richard. Music: An Appreciation Student Brief. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007. Kinny, Peter. “Opera Music over the Years.” Ancient Music. 2012. Web. Koestenbaum, Wayne. The Queen’s Throat: Opera, Homosexuality, and the Mystery of Desire. London: Penguin, 2004. Matz, Phillip. Verdi: A Biography. London: Oxford University Press, 2003. O’Regan Noel. “Asprilio Pacelli, Ludovico da Viadana and the Origins of the Roman Concerto Ecclesiastico.” Seventeenth-Century Music. 2012. Web. Parker, Roger. Giuseppe Verdi. London: Oxford University Press, 2001. Robinson, Paul. Is Aida an Orientalist Opera? In Opera, Sex and Other Vital Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation. Carrftridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. Small, Christopher. Music, Society, Education. London: John Calder Publishers, 2007. Werfel, Franz. The Man and His Letters. New York: Vienna House, 2003. Footnotes 1James Budden, The Operas of Verdi, Volume II (United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2004), 34. 2 Wayne Koestenbaum, The Queen’s Throat: Opera, Homosexuality, and the Mystery of Desire (London: Penguin, 2004), 67. 3 Bill Ashcroft, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-colonial Literatures (London: Routledge, 2009), 22. 4 Koestenbaum, The Queen’s Throat, 68. 5 John Dizikes, Opera in America: A Cultural History (London: Yale University Press, 2003), 23. 6 Noel O’Regan, “Asprilio Pacelli, Ludovico da Viadana and the Origins of the Roman Concerto Ecclesiastico,” Seventeenth-Century Music, 2012. 7 Paul Robinson, Is Aida an Orientalist Opera? In Opera, Sex and Other Vital Matters, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), 48. 8 Budden, The Operas of Verdi, Volume II, 56. 9 Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West (Bedford: St. Martin’s, 2009), 46. 10 Koestenbaum, The Queen’s Throat, 67. 11 Richard Kamien, Music: An Appreciation Student Brief (New York: McGraw Hill, 2007), 267. 12 Peter Kinny, “Opera Music over the Years,” Ancient Music, 2012. 13 Gabriele Erasmi, Ed Aida: Momenti Estremi Della Concezione Romantica (Studi Verdiani: Petrobelli, 2004), 1. 14 Franz Werfel, The Man and His Letters (New York: Vienna House, 2003), 78. 15 Budden, The Operas of Verdi, Volume II, 78. 16 Phillip Matz, Verdi: A Biography (London: Oxford University Press, 2003), 29. 17 Roger Parker, Giuseppe Verdi (London: Oxford University Press, 2001), 26. 18 John Budden, The Operas of Verdi (London: Oxford University Press, 2003), 34. 19 Gilles DeVan, Verdi’s Theatre: Creating Drama through Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 56. 20Charles Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Carrftridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005), 45. 21 James Budden, The Operas of Verdi, Volume III (United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2005), 78. 22 James Budden, The Operas of Verdi, Volume I (United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2003), 54. 23 Milton Brener, The Forgotten Man In Opera Offstage: Passion and Politics Behind the Great Operas (London: Robson Books, 2003), 45. 24 Robinson, Is Aida an Orientalist Opera, 46. 25 Christopher Small, Music, Society, Education (London: John Calder Publishers, 2007), 34. 26 Dane Harwood, “Universals in Music: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology,” Ethnomusicology 20, no. 4 (2006): 530. 27 Brener, The Forgotten Man In Opera Offstage, 45. 28 Robinson, Is Aida an Orientalist Opera, 47.