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1. Please read the below listed source and submit one reaction paper for an extra credit assignment. A Brief History of the Drug War | Drug Policy Alliance.pdf Download A Brief History of the Drug War

1. Please read the below listed source and submit one reaction paper for an extra credit assignment. A Brief History of the Drug War | Drug Policy Alliance.pdf Download A Brief History of the Drug War | Drug Policy Alliance.pdf The reaction paper must be at least 650 words, not counting material other than your own work, cover page, and source citation. The reaction paper will contain two elements: A synopsis of what the source was about, to include whatever the conclusion of the research indicated. You are to analyze the document and apply it to our lessons in class, also state why you agree or disagree with the conclusion. 2 Please read the below listed source and submit one reaction paper for an extra credit assignment. Impact of marijuana.pdf Download Impact of marijuana.pdf The reaction paper must be at least 650 words, not counting material other than your own work, cover page, and source citation. The reaction paper will contain two elements: A synopsis of what the source was about, to include whatever the conclusion of the research indicated. You are to analyze the document and apply it to our lessons in class, also state why you agree or disagree with the conclusion. 3.  Please read the below listed source and submit one reaction paper for an extra credit assignment. Police Use of Force.pdf Download Police Use of Force.pdf The reaction paper must be at least 650 words, not counting material other than your own work, cover page, and source citation. The reaction paper will contain two elements: A synopsis of what the source was about, to include whatever the conclusion of the research indicated. You are to analyze the document and apply it to our lessons in class, also state why you agree or disagree with the conclusion.

UMD How Developmental Science Influences Juvenile Justice Reform Discussion

UMD How Developmental Science Influences Juvenile Justice Reform Discussion.

Need to reply to the following discussions and support my point of view (agree or disagree) with references.Discussion #1:Over the last couple of decades, America’s criminal justice system has slowly moved away from a punishment model for juveniles commonplace in the eighties and nineties back to a rehabilitation model (Burke, et al., 2016). There were four landmark Supreme Court cases in the last decade that moved the juvenile courts to the rehabilitation model. In Roper v. Simmons, the Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to impose a death penalty on any youth under the age of eighteen when they committed the capital offense (2005). Later in Graham v. Florida, the Supreme Court ruled that sentencing a minor to life in prison without the possibility of parole was unconstitutional for a non-homicide offense (2010). Next, in Miller v. Alabama, the Supreme Court ruled that youth are not as responsible as adults for their actions due to their brains not being fully formed (2012). Justice Elena Kagan believed that mandatory life without parole sentences for anyone under the age of eighteen at the time for any crime was committed violated their eight Amendment rights protecting them from prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments (Miller v. Alabama, 2012). Finally, in Montgomery v. Louisiana, The Supreme Court retired all mandatory life without parole sentences before 2012 retroactively (2012). These four landmark Supreme Court cases show the difference in the criminal justice system between adults and juveniles, showing that juveniles’ brain formation and development are still occurring, making them less culpable for their actions, and should be treated and rehabilitated rather than punished like an adult (Burke, et al., 2016). I believe that this modern rehabilitation criminal justice model for juveniles effectively relieves some of the burden juvenile delinquency leaves in a community. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) conducted a meta-analysis by Lispey examining the effectiveness of juvenile delinquency programs in 1992 (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999). Lipsey found that 64.3% of the studies’ rehabilitation and treatment group showed a noticeable reduction in recidivism than the control group (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999). With properly funded and expanded treatment and rehabilitation programs, I believe that juvenile delinquents’ recidivism rate will continue to go down and put them on a path towards success in their lives and community.References:Burke, A. S., Carter, D. E., Fedorek, B., Morey, T. L., Rutz-Burri, L., & Sanchez, S. K. (2016). Introduction to the American Criminal Justice System. Open Educational Resource. https://learn.umgc.edu/d2l/le/content/510367/viewC…DeLisi, M. (2009). Juvenile delinquency. In J. M. Miller 21st Century criminology: A reference handbook (pp. 524-532). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412971997.n61Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. 48, 2010Miller v. Alabama, 567 U.S. 460, 2012Montgomery v. Louisiana, 557 U.S., 2016Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1999). Treatment programs for juvenile delinquents. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://ojjdp.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh176/file…Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551, 2005Discussion 2: Juvenile offenders are viewed differently than adult offenders because they are still young and impressionable and many juveniles need rehabilitation. Adult offenders are more aware of their actions and likely do not comply with peer pressure in the same manner as juveniles. Juveniles may commit two different types of offenses: status and delinquency. According to Delisi (2009), status offenses are limited only to juveniles so these offenses would not even be offenses if an adult committed that same offense. Examples of status offenses include running away from home, underage drinking and smoking, and violating curfew. Delinquent offenses include more serious crimes such as rape, murder, and arson (Delisi, 2020). Depending on the situation, some juveniles are charged as adults for delinquent offenses. I believe that this is effective because juveniles should be provided with leniency because they are a product of their environment and may need additional guidance. I also believe that the criminal justice system allowing for some juveniles to be charged as adults is appropriate because some offenses are heinous and every situation is different. Some juveniles may have started committing crimes at age nine and by the age of sixteen, they are well aware of the crimes that they are committing and should be punished accordingly.Delisi, Matt. (2009). 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook.http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umgc.edu/reference/criminology/n61.xml
UMD How Developmental Science Influences Juvenile Justice Reform Discussion

UOPX Environmental Sustainability Proposal for Sun City Essay

online dissertation writing UOPX Environmental Sustainability Proposal for Sun City Essay.

Assignment ContentImagine your city council has decided to invest some money in improving the environment. The city is considering the viewpoints of all stakeholders in the community as it decides how to allocate this money. Assume the role of a stakeholder in your community and propose some specific improvements to the city council. Keep in mind funds are limited, so you will need to justify your proposed spending to make expected benefits clear.Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word proposal to your local city council in which you propose how to use the money to best improve the environment within your community. Address the following: Your proposal should be clear as to how you would expect the city council to spend this money to improve the status of the environment in your community. Be specific about the problems and how they should be addressed.Propose improvements that integrate the physical and life sciences with culture, ethics, political, and socio-economics.Defend your position based on scientific evidence and reasoning.Include in your proposal any ethical concerns with new technologies.Explain how environmental justice plays a part in your proposal.Give details as to how your proposal will benefit the community while maintaining sustainability.Cite at least 2 examples of scientific literature to support your proposal.Note: Your assignment will be assessed using this rubric. It is recommended you use the rubric when completing this assignment.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Submit your assignment.ResourcesCenter for Writing ExcellenceReference and Citation GeneratorGrammar and Writing GuidesCopyright 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.Use this space to build your submission.You can add text, images, and files.Add Content
UOPX Environmental Sustainability Proposal for Sun City Essay

Disarmament And Arms Control

It is an assignment of our group of three people which is going to say about the UN implementing on disarmament and arms control. This assignment will tell you specific thing of the effectiveness of the implementation of UN history and ongoing future. We saw it as the interesting topics because it is a main strategic program for UN in order to process in conflict prevention, peacemaking, and peace building operation. Failure of controlling arms during the era of League of Nations had broken out another war which led to the collapse of League of Nations. This has made UN consider the disarmament and arms control as a main tactics for UN to prevent the breaking of another war. However it is a crucial policy for UN, this is not mean UN always succeed on it. Thus, it makes us have a strong feeling to know whether the United Nations is effective in implementing this policy or not. Introduction The devastations around the part of the world, especially in Europe that stamped from the hostility among the country drove to their countries of human suffering and environment degradation. The main instrument that has played the significant role in the confrontation, deputation and hostility was weapon. Weapon has invented, produced and update through generation; and weapons in the past were used in order to deal with the conflict and disputation rather than discussion and negotiation. Weapons did not provide any privilege beside killed them, threated and wounded them. As we all have well-known the two great worlds (WWI

Criminology: What is the Solution to the Prison Problem? Critical Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Current Problems within U.S. Prisons Rehabilitation instead of Incarceration Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The work of Angela Davis in her book, “Are Prisons Obsolete?”, introduces readers to the current state of the U.S. system of imprisonment and rehabilitation. She reveals the correlation between corporate interests, racial profiling, current laws and how such factors have contributed to the growing population of inmates within U.S. penitentiaries. Her book reveals how rehabilitation practices within prisons at the present are far from promoting a system that helps to transition inmates into normal civilian life. Instead, what occurs is a removal of civil liberties, the promotion of negative forms of behavior and finally the implementation of prolonged periods of incarceration so that private corporations can make more money and profit off of the inmates at the expense of U.S. taxpayers. This was noted in the following statement made by Davis (2003): “In arrangements reminiscent of the convict lease system, federal, state, and county governments pay private companies a fee for each inmate, which means that private companies have a stake in retaining prisoners as long as possible, and in keeping their facilities filled” (Davis, 95). As such, this paper presents the notion that the current system of rehabilitation within prisons is inherently flawed and needs to be changed in order to resolve the relatively high rates of re-incarceration within the U.S. Based on this, the assumption of this paper is that by implementing a system that focuses on encouraging better social integration rather than punishment this should help resolve the prison problems within the U.S. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current Problems within U.S. Prisons Based on the work of Vasiliades (2005), it can be seen that the current state of the U.S. prison system in no way rehabilitates prisoners (Vasiliades, 71-99). In fact Vasiliades (2005) states that prisons actually promote violent behavior resulting in a greater likelihood for those who enter it to get even worse over time. Vasiliades (2005) explains this by stating the following “…what do you expect would happen if you throw inmates into what is essentially a melting pot of violence and crime with no opportunity for improving their lives once they get out of prison, the obvious outcome would be a smarter and more violent criminal rather than a reformed prisoner that can be integrated into society” (Vasiliades, 71-99). Davis attempts to explain the inherent failure of society to realize the current problems faced by the prison system by saying that: “this is the ideological work that the prison performs – it relieves us of the responsibility of seriously engaging with the problems of our society, especially those produced by racism and, increasingly, global capitalism” (Davis, 16). It is based on the views of Vasiliades (2005) and Davis (2003) that it becomes painfully obvious that some means of change must be implemented in order to resolve the current problem surrounding the current prison system. Gopnik (2012) in his examination of the present day rates of incarceration within the U.S. shows that with the current system of rehabilitation in place, the possibility of re-incarceration is high with the likelihood of a former inmate making his/her way back into the prison system currently being set at 40 to 50 percent (Gopnik, 72-77). Gopnik (2012) even goes on to state that such a rate has increased considerably from 60 to 70 percent; the race, level of education and the absence of any professional skills could be indeed utilized (Gopnik, 72-77). Rehabilitation instead of Incarceration One way in which the problems presented by Davis (2003) and Vasiliades (2005) can be resolved is to implement methods or rehabilitation instead of incarceration. This comes in the form of processes and various stages of personality development wherein inmates are modified in such a way that they can easily integrate and adapt themselves back into the society. We will write a custom Critical Writing on Criminology: What is the Solution to the Prison Problem? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One country in which such a process has proven to be quite effective is the Netherlands wherein their prison system implements a series of steps for modifying behavior and ensuring that prisoners can have a stable and fulfilling life outside of prison. What you have to understand is that based on the studies of Vasiliades (2005), prison life within the U.S. does not prepare prisoners for life outside prison. It is often the case that prison reinforces and even encourages adverse behavior resulting in an inability to live a normal life and a greater propensity to return to a life of crime. The Netherlands resolves this issue by providing prisoners with daily psychological sessions, open prison environments, a relaxing atmosphere; they even provide them with the opportunity to obtain a college degree while in prison at the expense of the state. Not only that, prisoners within such environments are treated as if they are normal individuals as compared to most U.S. prisons where they are treated with a certain degree of disdain. By reinforcing positive behaviors and providing a means by which they can integrate themselves into society, the Netherlands has in effect created a system which has considerably minimized the rate of repeat offenders. This has manifested itself in the fact that the Netherlands has one of lowest crime rates in the world with a near nonexistent murder rate. Other countries have similarly tried to adopt such a style of allowing inmates to develop positive behaviors and skills in order to help them transition into society once they get out of jail. The Philippines, for instance, is home to “New Belibid Prison” which is one of the largest jails in South East Asia. Its size is somewhat misleading though due to the fact that prison officials allow prisoners to construct mini-homes, businesses and even training facilities within the prison. This has enabled the prison population to not only develop itself as a community but it has also helped its inmates in internalizing important job and social skills which would greatly assist them once they are released. Combined with the prison’s training program which teaches prisoners an assortment of trades and skills this has resulted in a far lower rate of re-incarceration as compared to their U.S. counterparts. Conclusion Based on the presented data it can be seen that by implementing a system that focuses on encouraging better social integration rather than punishment this should help resolve the prison problems within the U.S. as evidenced by the case of the Netherlands and the Philippines. Not sure if you can write a paper on Criminology: What is the Solution to the Prison Problem? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What you have to understand is that the current prison system within the U.S. does not rehabilitate at all and in fact promotes greater instances of criminal behavior. By implementing a system of rehabilitation instead of punishment and incarceration this should greatly reduce repeat offenders within the U.S. prison system. Works Cited Davis, Angela. “Are Prisons Obsolete?.” Publishers Group Canada 1.1 (2003):1- 126. Print. Gopnik, Adam. “The Caging Of America.” New Yorker 87.46 (2012): 72-77. Literary Reference Center. Web. Vasiliades, Elizabeth. “Solitary Confinement And International Human Rights: Why The U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards.” American University International Law Review 21.1 (2005): 71-99. Business Source Premier. Web.