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01.16 Writing Your Narrative Forces of Nature

01.16 Writing Your Narrative Forces of Nature. I don’t understand this History question and need help to study.

After you have completed a final read through of your story and made any necessary changes, submit your first draft for grading. The length of your completed draft should be at least 500 words.
Remember, you are writing a narrative based on the play, Macbeth; you are not writing a summary of the play.
01.16 Sample Partial Narrative

For this assignment, consult the information you wrote in your pre-writing organizer to write a narrative. Below is a partial sample that includes the exposition and rising action of a narrative; however, you will write a complete, original narrative.
Remember—you are not writing a summary of the play, Macbeth. You are writing a narrative, based on the play

Do not use the sample paragraphs in your narrative; you will write an original narrative.
Your original narrative will include an exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
Your original narrative will consist of, at least, 500 words.
The topics are listed in the lesson.

Sample Partial Narrative
Macbeth has finally done it. He is King!! I walk through the crowded streets after Macbeth’s coronation. My friend in battle now sits on the throne. Macbeth seems to have always been lucky. First he won a beautiful wife, then he became a war hero, and now he is King. No one expected his rise to power.
Soon after the coronation, I walk through the castle gates of Castle Macbeth, and much celebration can be heard. Purple, red, and gold banners hang from the ceiling with illustrious flair. The warm aroma of roasted pig fills the lighted halls. All of the nobles from the land are in attendance tonight to celebrate the new King. Macbeth enters the hall and addresses the crowd, “You know your own degrees; sit down. At first and last, the hearty welcome.” Cheers ring out in the great hall. “All hail King Macbeth,” everyone shouts! Immediately I become aware of the change in Macbeth’s appearance. Macbeth looks different now that he does not wear a soldier’s uniform. Macbeth is clothed in a deep purple robe of royalty. A shining gold crown sits upon his brow. But his face is looking haggard. Since our last meeting, there is not a sign of my past friend in his face. Macbeth appears to have the weight of the world on his shoulders.


01.16 Writing Your Narrative Forces of Nature

Brief Historical Background Slavery is a kind of lifestyle in which people live under an authority called the lord, who takes them as their property. Slaves usually perform their duties against their will. They are often captured and sold after which they are forced to render compulsory service to their lords. Slaves have limited rights attached to their livelihood. Since they are the property of their lords, they are often misused without compensation. Slavery began long time ago even before writing began. It was a common phenomenon in many cultures. In Europe, slavery peaked in the fourteenth and ended in the late twentieth century after the emancipation of serfdom. Immigration is the movement of people from their country of origin to another country. Illegal immigration is immigration without proper documentations. Illegal immigration is deadly because the immigrants may end up into slavery. This is because they cannot be offered protection by the institutions since they are not documented. Illegal immigration is present in the border between the United States and Mexico. Slaves and illegal immigrants can also contribute to economic development in one way or another as it is discussed in this paper. Description of the Historical and Political Issues of Slavery and Their Challenges In America, slavery was viewed as the institution of suffocating oppression, so airtight that it allowed its victims limited opportunity to function as full human beings. Slavery is about domination and of necessity, it rested on coercion. It was characterized by power, violence, and usurpation of labor for the aim of aggrandizing a small minority. There were many instances of murder, beatings, mutilations, and humiliations (both petty and great). The slave owners lashed, traumatized, raped, and killed their victims. Slaves would be punished in many ways including being sold away from their kin. Thus, the narration of slavery is the story of ill-treatment, cruelty, and segregation that the black people were subjected to by their masters. Another way to look at slavery is considering the system as a lifestyle. This lifestyle involved slave trade. Black men and women were often chained together while being marched towards the rivers where they would be put in steam boats leaving for places that required their demands. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Possible Causes of Slavery There are quite a number of reasons as to why people become enslaved. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, economic factors were the major causes of slavery. This was when colonists chiefly depended on indentured servitude so that their demand for labor could be met. In England, there was a decrease in population during this time. This led the colonial masters to believe that Africans were the most viable slaves who would come in handy as cheap and efficient labor. Currently, slavery has been coined names such as human trafficking, bonded labor, forced labor, and even some instances refer to sex trafficking as a form of slavery. This means that slavery is evolving. All these kinds of slavery are driven by economic factors. In the past, one could become a slave simply by being loaned some money. All that the person owned including their family belonged to the lender until the entire debt was paid. This situation is termed as collateral debt bondage and it is the complete control of a person because of a debt (Bales 4). Another point worth noting is the aspect of vulnerability. It is crucial to understand the ease in which the vulnerable people can become slaves. However, this should be taken with caution because it depends with the type of vulnerability. The elderly, the sick, and the very young children do not fall victims of slavery. Thus, those young and strong people who are taken captive for forced servitude usually lack both the personal and financial resources and the social and governmental protections to prevent them from being enslaved (Bales 10). Therefore, financial factors, vulnerability, and availability of slaves are among the major causes of slavery. Possible Causes of Legal Immigration Legal immigration is also caused by economic factors. Another factor includes less legal restriction of movements of people either in the sending or the destination country. This was particularly happening during the late nineteenth century when Europeans would move freely into and out of the United States. Nowadays the U.S. has put certain restrictions of free movement of people especially to countries outside the agreement (Ghosh 34). Thus, the major causes of legal immigration include search for better jobs and diplomatic missions. Possible Causes of Illegal Immigration The economy of a country is undoubtedly the last receptor of the effects of illegal immigrants. It is quite clear that illegal immigration accomplishes what legal migration does not accomplish in the United States’ economy. This is because illegal immigration moves large numbers of low skilled workers from a low productivity to a high productivity environment. Illegal immigration also brings low skilled workers to the United States when the productivity gains of doing so appear to be at the highest levels. We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic Contribution of Slaves and Present Day Legal and Illegal Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The highest number of illegal immigrants in the United States comes from Mexico. Thus, this paper discusses the causes of illegal immigration within the two countries. Mexico has been experiencing several sever economic contractions. These economic conditions have spiked major exodus of workers towards the United States. This exodus is beneficial to the economy of Mexico because their labor productivity is at its lowest (Hanson 15-16). Effects of Slavery and Immigration Slavery robbed African Americans and their descendants their culture and denied their language, religion, and family life thereby reducing them to infantilized ciphers. In short, slavery is responsible for breaking Africans and African Americans. Slavery also commandeered the labor of many to make a few rich (Horton
article brief assignment.

Students will select and read over the duration of the course an article (totaling 10 articles) published by a mainstream, respected, popular press or selected publications, such as these approved sources: The Washington Post, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Hindustan Times, Newsweek, Deutsche Welle, Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Nigeria Health Watch, The Guardian, US News & World Report, The Atlantic, Science, South China Morning Post, IRIN, VOX, Wired, The Daily Grind, or online sources, e.g. Al Jazeera, Huffington Post, BBC, NPR, ABC, CBC Public Radio International.Students will put together a weekly brief on each of articles (10 points each) in PowerPoint formatDo a thoughtful and thorough search on the internet for these articles. This may take some time. Stay away from blogs, opinion editorials, peer review journals, and organizational newsletters for this assignment.Articles must be global in intent. That is, if possible, it can’t only be about the United States or high-income countries but must link data and information with what is going on in middle- and lower-income countries.The following are NOT ACCEPTABLE, without prior approval from the professor:Any article published before January 1, 2018Any article or text from Wikipedia, blogs, peer reviewed journals, opinion pieces or opinion editorials (e.g., Op Eds), organization websites or newslettersAny article from a source that is NOT mentioned above. Easy rule of thumb: if it’s not listed in the list above, don’t use it. If you’re not sure if it’s a blog or an opinion piece or a proper source, please seek my review and pre-approval.Any article or text less than 400 words.Any article or text without evidence-based information, e.g., population data (demographic/household and/or health behavior data; health outcomes) and/or baseline-end line program data.Submitting the assignment: 1. The complete assignment must be uploaded onto blackboard in two parts: 1) the brief, and 2) a copy of the article you read. 2. When entitling your upload, paraphrase the article’s title in no more than 4 words so readers can tell what the technical topic is, what the geographic focus is, what the issue is. For instance, the article on “Africa Is Suffering A Silent Crisis of Stroke” can be paraphrased, “Stroke.Africa.Crisis”. If you don’t title your upload with a paraphrase, you will lose one point.The brief:Use a “PowerPoint” format. The content of brief should be written in the student’s own words. That is, be concise, crisp in your use of statements and data. Use a combination of prose and bullet points. Add charts and pictures from the article or other sources accordingly to emphasize what you want to convey (don’t forget in-text citations). Use no more than 15 PPT slides not including the cover slide and reference slide. Organize them according to the format suggested below. You can pick any design style you like for your PPT. Make sure that the text is legible and readable, no smaller than 28-point font.The brief should include no more than three short quotes from the article reviewed; the quote should be properly cited in the PPT and on the reference slide. If more than three quotes are included in the brief from the article copied, the student will lose one point per additional quote. This does not include quoting data.The brief should have a cover slide. Please follow the template at the end of this assignment guide. Feel free to put whatever design you want on the cover, if you have the complete, correct information in the specific layout (centered).The brief should have a final last slide solely devoted to APA style references of any sources, including the article. Hanging indents must be used; “Retrieved from” must precede URLs. 0.50 points will be deducted if the references are not on a separate reference slide. 0.25 points will be deducted each time you are missing a hanging indent or do not use the “Retrieved from” in front of a URL. Please look at the simple APA guidelines and example for this assignment under the Blackboard’s “Assignments”.
article brief assignment

The Yorktowns Introduction My historical topic for this paper will be on the Five Yorktown ships. The reason for this is two of the ships are world famous because of their time in both World Wars but the other three have been lost to history and I plan on bringing them back. These gallant ships were named after the Battle of Yorktown which took place in the Revolutionary War in Yorktown, VA. This is the spot that George Washington got his last chance to win the war. Which he did by boxing Lord Cornwallis in the harbor so he could not move forward or retreat. The historical lenses that will be used through out this paper will be both political and military in nature since all of these ships are in fact military ships. I started to do research on these ships in the class before this one (History 502) and now I am going to attempt to continue my research here in (History 520). I will be bringing up some points from the first paper just to refresh my memory at different points through out this paper. As far as I know, I am the only one that has done any type of research on these vessels in quite a while. The gap between the first two (2) Yorktowns is pretty large considering it is almost a forty-year gap between the building of them. My argument on the first two (2) ships should be mentioned a little more during a time of horrible and vile times. They were a part of making something right that should have never happened in the first place, The African Slave Trade. The Yorktown I (Sloop) was part of the African Squadron and the other Yorktown PG-1 (16-gun, Gunboat) was part of the Squadron of Evolution. Both squadrons were part of the new United States Navy. (1,6,7,8,9,10) One of my biggest complaints about these two vessels is there does not seem to be a lot written about them so where these two vessels are concerned, I will have to make do with the information I have. During this paper there will be one photograph (maybe two) of each vessel so you can get an idea of what they looked like for their time period. Plus, the resources will help me describe the materials and technology used in the construction of these vessels. After doing some refreshing of memory, I will also be detailing who christened the vessels. Sometimes something as small as that type of detail is what someone would want to know. I also realize my introduction is long, but I am just trying to make sure I cover everything. All my resources are significant and relevant to my topic. All of them are of my topic specifically or with in the domain. I do not think that because of the topic matter there will be any way I can draw from outside sources from my chosen lenses. Thesis The thesis of this paper is that history has forgotten about three (3) of these vessels and let them down where I will not let them be forgotten again. Historiography The historiography on the first two (2) Yorktowns will be a challenge due to the amount of information that is available, is not much, but what there is has been strong and creditable since it is coming from the Department of the Navy and NHHC. Comparing the lenses from the introduction section of this paper, I truly believe that I do have the right lenses for this paper in use. The historiography of the other three (3) Yorktowns will be more informative because there is more information on them. As explained in the introduction paragraph of this paper the first two Yorktowns do not have a lot written about them, but from what I can gather from just the sources I do have they both did their jobs diligently. When Yorktown “1840” sank in 1850 it took almost another forty years to get another one. Yorktown II or PG-1 (16-gun, gunboat) was built towards the end of the 1880’s (approx.) Again, this one was built with the same mission as the one before her. This mission was known as the Squadron of Evolution. When she was not sailing the western seaboard of Africa looking for slave ships, she could be found sailing the Gulf of Mexico, and around the tropical islands. When she was not looking for her targets she was being used as a target to familiarize the other Naval vessels small arm target practice and torpedo practice. She even perfected land sea ops that were used about fifty years later in WWI. (8) “1840” Yorktown Sloop of War Yorktown PG-1 (16-Gun, Gunboat) Historiography continued The first two Yorktowns do not get the credit that they deserved for helping to stop the vile and horrible Slave trade, but they also helped the Navy learn other things about ocean life as well. They taught others how to sail in open waters, rough waters, calm waters, stormy waters and hurricanes. The first Yorktown was made of wood, while the second one was a combination of wood and metal. The designs and technology used for building ships had drastically changed over the course of the forty years between the first two Yorktowns. (8) Now the technology and ship designs are going to change again to even larger and all metal. This will be what was the biggest ship on the ocean for its time and that is the Aircraft Carrier known as the USS Yorktown CV-5. This Yorktown was unique because planes could land on her and take off on her flight deck. She was what was known as a Yorktown class aircraft carrier. Her hull was laid in 1934 and by the time she was finished being constructed she was launched and commissioned and went through her sea trials all in 1936 and 37. Soon leaving San Diego in 1940 for patrols in a new fleet called Fleet Problem XXI that April. The Fleet Problem XXI was set up into two sections the first being training in scouting and screening, and the second part was convoy protection training. (11) These exercises were considered minor at the time because they needed to teach the Army and Navy to coordinate with each other for defense of the Hawaiian Islands (11). With the war coming, all of the planes and exercises and training that they had done will prove to be significant for the high altitude tracking of surface forces. After receiving news from Pearl Harbor early in the morning that they had fallen under attack the Yorktown finished suppling up and headed to the pacific. Once reaching Pearl and accessing the damage, realizing there was nothing that could be done in the main harbor they went around to the other harbors where other subs and ships were moored to see what all survived if anything. By the stroke of luck the other side of the island had not been bombed which is where a lot of the submarines and other vessels were located. Then you had those that had not even come into port yet when Pearl Harbor was bombed. CV-5 started heading towards the Coral Sea in March where she rendezvoused with a unit known as TF11 which was formed around the carrier Lexington CV-2. The battle of Coral Sea started around the 5th of May both the Lexington and Yorktown both entered the battle shortly after entering the area. With all of the fighting the American aircraft sank a Japanese light carrier named Shoho and severely damaged another by the name of Shokaku. By this time the Lexington was under attack and in the process of being lost while the Yorktown’s captain, Captain Elliot Buckmaster was able to avert being hit by seven or eight Japanese torpedoes. But the Yorktown was hit by a bomb forcing her to go back to Pearl. The repairs were estimated to take around three months to complete but the Captain did not want to wait that long and only had the more dire of emergency repairs done and the Yorktown was back at sea quickly thereafter. Yorktown CV-5 before the Battle of Midway 1942. The battle of Midway was a pivotal battle in the Pacific Ocean. TF16 and TF17 which (Enterprise and Hornet) were fought on June 4-7, while sister ships like the Yorktown were coming in to help. Some of the aircraft that came from the Yorktown sank the Japanese carrier Soryu while other aircrafts from other American carriers sank the carriers Kaga and the Akagi. Later that afternoon the last surviving Japanese carrier named the Hiryu launched every aircraft it could. They located the Yorktown and scored three (3) massive bomb hits which one was enough to take out the boilers on the ship. This caused the ship to reduce its speed to around six knots. The sailors moved as fast as they could to get the fires contained and repair as much as the damage as could plus restore what power could be restored. A little after two hours after the first wave of attacks happened a second wave came from above. Torpedo planes from the carrier Hiryu started dropping torpedoes hitting the Yorktown. This time seriously wounding the carrier to the point where she lost power for a second time and she started listing to the port side. With fires being put out, flooding still out of hand, and getting worse, the Yorktown was in danger of capsizing, her Captain decided it was time to abandon ship. The Yorktown showed she was not ready to give up the fight just yet. She fought that night and the next day to stay afloat so salvage efforts could start to save the carrier. As these efforts started a Japanese submarine got through the defenses and shot off four torpedoes towards the Yorktown hitting her twice. A torpedo hit the Hammann sinking her which was helping with the rescue operation of the Yorktown. The American forces chased the Japanese submarine away and grabbed the survivors from the water and quickly decided that the Mighty Yorktown could not be saved so on June 7, 1942 at 7:01am she capsized and sank. U.S.S Yorktown CV-5 Final Resting Place. U.S.S Yorktown CV-10 This carrier has a split personality. I say this because she was really named Bon Homme Richard until September of 1942 when they changed her name to Yorktown CV-10 or CVS-10. This will be a little confusing because both Yorktowns were in Pearl Harbor but at different times. Neither one was there during the bombings. CV-10 was able to launch an early onset attack during the early days of the Japanese conflict when CV-5 could not. CV-10 served through most of WWII where CV-5 only served just a few short years before being sunk. Her name sake would have been proud of CV-10 because she not only finished WWII, she went to Korea, and Vietnam. CV-10 has awards coming out of every hanger on her and they even keep them in storage on the bridge. I get emotional talking about this one because in my family she is known as the “Fighting Lady”. For every sailor that has ever served on her that was her name, that will always be her name. not just because of CV-10 but because CV-5 was so hard to sink at least that is my opinion. She fought to stay afloat for her crew. The “Fighting Lady” was decommissioned in 1974, where she is a museum ship at Patriots Point in Mount Pleasant South Carolina. U.S.S. Yorktown CV-10 or CVS-10 U.S.S Yorktown CG-48 U.S.S Yorktown CG-48 is that last ship to be named Yorktown to my knowledge. Her hull was laid in 1981 and she was commissioned in 1984 on the fourth of July. She was a new type of cruiser that had guided missiles. She was a prototype of vessel so information on her is limited at best but what I have found is that she spent some of her time in the Mediterranean Sea doing black ops. Her service only lasted until December of 2004 when she was decommissioned and as of 2009 she was sold for scrap. (4,5) Bibliography “African Squadron.” NHHC. Accessed March 28, 2019. https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/a/african-squadron.html. “The Crippled USS Yorktown Traded Its Life for Victory at Midway.” We Are The Mighty. Last modified January 28, 2019. http://www.wearethemighty.com/articles/crippled-uss-yorktown-traded-its-life-victory-at-midway. Editors, History.com. “Battle of Yorktown.” HISTORY. Last modified May 9, 2019. http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/siege-of-yorktown. “USS YORKTOWN (CG-48) Deployments

Exploring the contribution of forensic science

Forensic psychology has proven itself to be a quite intriguing field of study. From serial killers to child custody cases, the work of a forensic psychologist is involved. Forensic psychology is the intersection between the field of psychology and the legal system (Huss, 2001). Or, as defined by the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP), “[forensic psychology] is the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system” (ABFP, 2010). This profession is not restricted to just one area of the legal system; in fact it contributes to the subspecialties of corrections, civil court, investigations, criminals, juveniles, and police. The purpose of this paper is to explain the roles and responsibilities a forensic psychologist has in each subspecialty, review court cases and research relative to the area, and discuss ethical dilemmas/ challenges and controversial issues forensic psychologists may encounter. Note: Throughout the text the terms forensic psychologist and psychologist are used interchangeably to describe the profession Introduction Criminal Criminal psychologists can be found in various settings with a wide array of roles and responsibilities. Aside from studying criminal behavior, criminal psychologists work with the police departments assisting with investigations, giving advice on how to conduct interviews with suspects and witnesses, they provide their services as an expert witness, aid in the process of rehabilitating an offender, and continuously research developments related to their field (Bull, Hatcher, Cooke et al, 2009). In the case of Jenkins v. U.S., 1962, it was ruled that a medical degree was no longer a requirement for an expert witness and that with the proper training and level of expertise a psychologist could now testify on issues relating to mental disorders. However in the role of an expert witness there are a couple challenges that appear which are attorney contracted psychological services and the admissibility of expert testimony in court proceedings. During a court proceeding a criminal psychologist may be called upon to give their expert opinion about a matter related to the case. The purpose of an expert testimony is either to explain or give information to help in either the jury or judge’s decision making and is related to the psychologist’s area of expertise (Shuman

You just purchased a food truck and have begun selling in a large college town. As you are learning the market, you have been changing location every few days to get a sense of local demand. In doing so, you’ve decided to collect some data. In particular,

help writing You just purchased a food truck and have begun selling in a large college town. As you are learning the market, you have been changing location every few days to get a sense of local demand. In doing so, you’ve decided to collect some data. In particular,.

I’m working on a data analytics question and need an explanation to help me learn.

You just purchased a food truck and have begun selling in a large college town. As you are learning the market, you have been changing location every few days to get a sense of local demand. In doing so, you’ve decided to collect some data. In particular, you collect data on your revenues and the distance of the truck location from the center of the local university. The hope is to get a sense as to whether demand notably varies depending on your proximity to the university.undefinedBased on the data, please answer the following.undefinedWhat were the best days of the month for sales? (Top 5)What days of week are the best for sales?What was the total sales for the month?What days were the worst for sale? (Lowest 5)Rank the weeks by best sales from greatest to least: 1, 2, 3, or 4. Hint: total the week’s sales and group accordingly. Omit the 29-31 in your ranking.What is the average for the month?What is the mode?What is the range in sales?Run a regression and use the data to create a graph in Excel.Write a 500-word summary explaining to your manager how you can increase sales for the next month.data needed for this question is in attachment.
You just purchased a food truck and have begun selling in a large college town. As you are learning the market, you have been changing location every few days to get a sense of local demand. In doing so, you’ve decided to collect some data. In particular,

Rainfall excess and surface runoff

Surface runoff is that portion of the rainfall, which reaches natural or man-made drainage canals, after it falls on the ground and travels to the point of consideration, and, which remains after all water losses are satisfied. The most important rainfall losses along its way of the rainfall to the water body could be defined as follows: Interception storage – This is the part of the rainfall, which adheres to the surface of vegetation and other aboveground objects and is returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Its value depends on the type of vegetation, intensity and volume of the rainfall and the growth stage of the vegetation. Grass and dense shrubbery could intercept 1.2-1.8 mm of the rainfall (Novotny 2003). Depression storage – this is the part of the rainfall, which is detained in surface depressions, which need to be filled before the runoff could be transported further. This water evaporates or percolates to the soil. The amount of depression storage depends on the moisture content of the ground cover and topography. In many cases, the interception storage and depression storage are grouped together and evaluated as on value, termed, ‘surface storage”. Evapotranspiration – it represents water loss into the atmosphere by the combined effect of evaporation from soil and water surface and transpiration by plants. Transpiration denotes the water abstracted by plants from soil moisture and released to the atmosphere, as a part of their life cycle. Infiltration – this is the process of percolation of the surface storage into the soil . it is a function of soil permeability, moisture content, vegetation cover and other factors. After reaching the aquifer, this portion of the rainfall is known as ‘‘groundwater runoff ” and is the main source for ground water recharge. It is the source of the ‘‘base flow” in rivers and streams, maintained by springs and other forms of ground water discharges to the natural water bodies. The infiltration of ground water to sewer systems could be included in this category as well. Considering the above-mentional losses, we could differentiate between rainfall excess and surface runoff in the following way: rainfall excess or ‘‘ net rain” is used to denote that part of the rainfall, which is left after the subtraction of the above mentioned losses, and is expressed as the depth of water in mm over a given surface area for a specified period of time. Surface runoff – it represent that part of rainfall, which has been generated by the rainfall excess, and forms part of the surface flow in natural rivers and streams. It is expressed as flow rate (volume per unit time). Determining Rainfall Excess: Rainfall excess could be determined by the curve number method, known as the Natural Resources Conservation Method (NRCM)), developed first in the USA. It determines the rainfall excess as a function of the rainfall volume , surface storage and infiltration (Novotny 2003). Based on extensive rainfall/runoff data variety of soil and cover condition, the method result in the development of a set curves, with a specific number, which links the 24-h rainfall with the corresponding rainfall excess. Each curve number is dependent on the type of land use, level of imperviousness, hydrologic conditions and type of soils. Different soil conditions are classified in four categories. This method was adapted for the Southern African conditions and is known as the SA-SCS method (Shulze et al. 1993). Determining Surface Runoff: the rational method: this method, also known as Lloyd-Davis method, is the oldest and most widely used method in engineering practice for determination of the design runoff quantity, during the process of drainage structures design for flood prevention. Its purpose is to determine a design surface runoff flow rate, which would be the base for the sizing of the coveying structure to transport the runoff from a given area to a point where it could be discharged safely into a natural water body or disposed on land. Thus this method focuses on a selected rainfall event, which is the most probable one to cause flooding within a given period of time. In other words, the methods determines the runoff from high intensity storms with a relatively low probability of occurrence. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate ‘design’ storm in the terms with a high frequency of pollution control and abatement is very important. The method is based on the following assumptions: the peak rate of runoff at any point is a direct function of the average rainfall intensity during the time of concentration to the point. The frequency of the peak discharge is the same as the frequency of the average rainfall intensity. The time of concentration is the time required for the runoff to become established from the most remote part of the drainage area to the point under consideration. it includes the overland flow time (inlet time) and the time of flow along the channel, governed by channel hydrulics. Reported practice generally limits the use of this method to urban areas of less than 13 km2 (White 1978). For larger areas, the application of hydrograph methods is recommended. The rational method is represented in the following formula: Q = CiA Q= the peak runoff rate; C= runoff coefficient, which depends on characteristics of the drainage area; I= the average rainfall intensity (iav); and A= the drainage area. The drainage area information should be include the following: land use – the present and predicted future practice-as it affects the degree of protection to be provided and the percentage of imperviousness. The character of soil and cover as they may affect the runoff coefficient. The general magnitude of ground slopes, which, with pervious items and shape of the drainage area, well affect the time of concentration. The application of the rational method requires information with respect to rainfall data, as well as clear understanding of the concepts and principles involved. The main parameters and procedures included in the determination of the iav value are explained below: Time Concentration – this is the time required for the surface runoff flow to travel from the most remote part of the drainage area to the point of consideration along a conveying conduit. For urban drainage systems, the time concentration consists of the inlet time plus the time of flow in the conduit from the most remote inlet point to the point under consideration. The time of flow may be estimated closely from the hydraulic properties of the conduit. It would vary with surface slope, the nature of surface cover, and the length of the path of surface flow, as well as with variables such as the soil infiltration capacity and depression storage. Rainfall intensity- duration relationship – they are important characteristics of any rainfall event. Usually storm events have varing intensity along its duration. The iav of the rainfall event would be equal to the cumulative depth of rainfall (in, mm) divided by the storm duration. Unit Hydrograph Methods: Most standard hydrology books contain a derivation of the linear theory of hydrologic systems culminating in the unit hydrograph theory. A unit hydrograph is essentially the runoff, distributed correctly in time, from a unit of excess rainfall falling in a certain predetermined time period and applied uniformly over a watershed or subbasin. Thus, the 5-min unit hydrograph is the runoff hydrograph from, say 1 in of excess rainfall falling uniformly over a 5-min interval. Determination of an actual runoff hydrograph from a storm event (term convolution) is accomplished when measured 5-min blocks of rainfall (termed a rainfall hyetograph) are multiplied by the ordinates of this unit hydrograph, shifted in time by 5-min steps and added together. use of unit hydrographs involves the determination of excess rainfall through the use of some sort initial loss and infiltration methodology. a number of unit hydrograph types are available in the literature. Two of the most common described briefly here. Synder’s Unit Hydrograph: This method was developed (Snyder, 1938) for the Appalachian area watersheds ranging from 10 to 10,000 square miles. It has been applied to watersheds across th United States by the crops of Engineers and is one of the metheods found in the popular HEC-1 program. It provides a means of generating a synthetic unit hydrograph. it relies on the calculation of lag time and peak flows through two relationships involving area, length measurments, and estimated parameters. Because it does not define the total hydrograph shape, other relationships must be used with the Snyder method for such a definition. For example, HEC-1 uses the Clark relationship for such a definition along with empirically developed estimates of the hydrograph widths at the 50 and 75% of peak levels (HEC, 1990). Details of the method can be found in Chow (1964). SCS Synthetic Unit Hydrograph: The Soil Conservation Service developed a family of hydrologic procedures, one of which is a synthetic unit hydrograph procedure. It has been widely used for developing rural and urban hydrographs. The unit hydrograph used by the SCS method is based upon an analysis of a large number of natural unit hydrographs from a broad cross section of geographic locations and hydrologic regions. Rainfall is a necessary input. This method is discussed in detail later in this chapter. Continuous Simulation Models: All of the methods described above are event models, which userainfall as the input and flood peaks and hydrographs as the output. this is because most municipal stormwater water management facilities are designe for a specified flood event, and rainfall data are readily available throughout the country. a consequence of this approach is that the complex interaction between rainfall and resulting storm runoff must be estimated, and only one or two flood events are used in the design. In contrast, continuous simulation models such as the EPAStormwater Management Model (SWMM) or the Hydrocomp Simulation Model attempt to represent the entire hydrlogic system on the computer so as simulate the natural system. In this way, the model simulates the runoff process including interception, infiltration, overland flow,channel flow..This simulates is over a long period of time and is continuous so that both flood events and low-flow events are simulated. If accurately simulated, the models will provide information on particular aspects of the runoff process, such as antecedent moisture, which is important when estimating flood peaks and hydrographs The Unit Hydrograph: The unit hydrograph method is an approach initially advanced by Sherman. The keystone of the method is the assumption that watershed discharge is related to the total volume of runoff, and that time factors that affect the unit-hydrograph shape are invariant. A major step forward in hydrological analysis was the concept of the unit hydrograph introduced by the American engineer Sherman in 1932. he defined the unit hydrograph as the hydrograph of surface runoff resulting from effective rainfall falling in a unit of time such as 1 hour or 1 day and produced uniformly in space and time over the total catchment area (Sherman, 1942). In practice, a T hour unit hydrograph is defined as resulting from a unit depth of effective rainfall falling in T hour over the catchment. The magnitude chosen for T depends on the size of the catchment and the response time to major rainfall events. The standard depth of effective rainfall was taken by Sherman to be 1 in, but with merrication, 1 mm or sometimes 1 cm is used

California Miramar University Week 7 Career Practical Training Discussion

California Miramar University Week 7 Career Practical Training Discussion.

Complete the attached report. Be sure to explain how your employment activities relate to your degree program. Explain the specific job duties and responsibilities that you accomplished this week. Provide details of your interaction and communications with your direct supervisor and/or your co-workers. Identify the various soft skills that you utilized in performing your job responsibilities. Detail those specific events and the critical thinking process that occurred.Remember: If you were assigned new duties and/or responsibilities, make sure you concentrate on those items. If you are completing similar activities, concentrate on the different responsibilities you completed this week.The report is a minimum of 300 words and is worth 100 points. Use Grammarly to check your report prior to submitting for grading. Make sure your Grammarly review setting is set to KNOWLEDGEABLE, FORMAL, and ACADEMIC.Also, make certain that you utilize proper paragraph and sentence structure.
California Miramar University Week 7 Career Practical Training Discussion