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# ​Homework. economic of transportion

​Homework. economic of transportion.

Homework – I’m in class 420######4201. Which of the following 1-year investments has the highest rate of return?
(a) \$12,500 that yields \$1,125 in interest, (b) \$56,000 that yields \$6,160 in interest, or
(c) \$95,000 that yields \$7,600 in interest.

Note that this question has different problems depending on if you are in TRSS 420 or TRSP
620. A few hints for this problem. A principle amount is not given. This means that it does
not matter what the initial principle is. You may assume some value if it makes calculations
easier. Also, some may find excel useful though not necessary.
• [TRSP 620]A student has been offered a 4 year loan at a simple interest rate of 7% per
year. Another bank has offered the student a loan with compound yearly interest. What
is the maximum interest rate of the compound interest loan for the student to accept
their offer? Assume no payments will be made until the end of the 4th year.
• [TRSS 420]A student has been offered a 4 year loan at a compound interest rate of 7%
per year. Another bank has offered the student a loan with simple interest. What is the
maximum interest rate of the simple interest loan for the student to accept their offer?
Assume no payments will be made until the end of the 4th year.

A company borrowed money at 5% interest per year (compound interest) to purchase new
equipment. If the company got the loan 3 years ago and paid it off with a single payment of
\$28,941, what was the principal amount, P , of the loan?Discuss Governor Hogan’s decision to not fund the Red Line. What factors went into his
decision? Do you agree with the decision? http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/editorial…
​Homework. economic of transportion

The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is ‘a change in the electrical properties of the skin’ (Sharma, Kacker and Sharma 2016, p. 13) and measures changes in the conductance of the skin produced by sweat glands, especially on the palms and soles of feet (Engler, Lloyd, Martin-Koob and Naze, 2011). The skin conductance level can act as an initial base level, from which feedback instruments can measure the GSR using copper electrodes. The psychogalvanic reflex is an unconscious response to a stressful stimulus and is controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (Sharma, Kacker and Sharma, 2016). The body has several physiological responses to the stress caused by lying, such as an increase in GSR, heart rate and respiration, due to the release of hormones in the adrenal gland (Engler et al., 2011). These reactions are caused by the fight-or-flight response to a stressor in the environment and are the kind of results expected on a polygraph test (Handler and Honts, 2007). If a person is lying their skin resistance is lower, due to the production of more sweat, and their hands are colder (Villarejo, Zapirain and Zorrilla, 2012). These physiological responses can, therefore, be measured and used as a form of ‘lie detection’. The GSR is a key component in the physiological measurement of arousal in response to both critical, neutral and control questions in polygraph tests, as a means of indicating if someone is telling the truth. Two key theories explain the physiology of the GSR; vascular and secretory (Lader and Montagu, 1962). The vascular theory suggests GSR is caused by changes in the tone of blood vessels in the skin. Whereas the secretory theory proposes the GSR is due to changes in the secretory activity of the sweat glands. The second theory carries more weight, with Lader and Montagu (1962) finding the psycho-galvanic reflex is due to pre-secretory activity in the sweat glands, and not vasomotor activity. There are two levels of GSR which can be measured to indicate deception. The resistance level is the static level between two electrodes of a circuit, but a temporary change in the resistance level can be caused by the presentation of a stimulus that prompts a stress response. There is usually a lowering of the resistance level in response to an emotion-provoking stimulus, with a lower resistance level indicating a smaller GSR (McCleary, 1950). There is some criticism of using GSR as a ‘lie detector’, with research finding polygraph tests are only accurate about 65 percent of the time. It has also been found there is a 50 percent chance an innocent person will fail the test and be viewed as deceptive (Lykken, 1984). It is thought the anxiety caused by undergoing a lie detector test, even when you’re being honest, can result in similar readings seen in a guilty party. It is unclear whether the stress response that is detected using the polygraph test, such as a change in GSR, is uniquely indicative of lying or if this same response can be produced for other reasons. This evidence, therefore, undermines the reliability of using GSR as a ‘lie detector’, and by extension the use of lie detection tests through physiological measures. Atkinson et al., (1993) suggest using GSR as a ‘lie detector’ has poor reliability as people who are frequent liars may show little arousal to the behaviour, and so wouldn’t display the typical physiological reactions one would expect to find in a person who is lying. Furthermore, a subject who has undergone a polygraph test several times in the past may be able to create baseline results which are similar to reactions to the critical questions, therefore skewing the results of the lie detector test and making the GSR a less reliable measure of deception. This could be done by tensing their muscles during neutral questions to prompt a spike in the polygraph results, or by thinking about something exciting, this will prompt a change in GSR and heart rate that would typically indicate deception (Atkinson et al., 1993). This shows how the ‘automatic’ change in GSR due to the arousal caused by the stress of lying, could be manipulated by subjects, making this method of lie detection less reliable. The inter-rater reliability of polygraphs, using GSR, has also been called into question as there is a large degree of variability in the conduction of these tests. Every subject responds to stressful situations differently and the way the questions are asked, as well as what questions are asked, can have an impact on how reliable the polygraph test itself is. Different examiners could give two varying interpretations of the polygraph results, with one determining the subject is lying due to the results, whilst another could decide the subject is being truthful and there are no marked changes in GSR, or other factors like breathing rate (National Research Council, 2003). It is also important to note that up to three times a minute there are random natural spikes in GSR (Engler et al., 2011), these changes may be misinterpreted by examiners as being a response to a critical question that could indicate deception. This inconsistency in the conclusions of polygraph tests means the method of using GSR as a ‘lie detector’ may be unreliable. Due to these concerns polygraph tests results, including where GSR is an included measure of arousal, has caused controversy over whether they should be admissible in court (Saxe, Dougherty and Cross, 1985). This demonstrates how unreliable these methods are in lie detection. Research has indicated there are no physiological responses or combinations of responses, that can determine alone how truthful a subject is (Gallai, 1999). Therefore, after considering the literature and empirical evidence of GSR and its physiological basis, GSR can be concluded to be fairly unreliable as a ‘lie detector’. However, it can still be beneficial in giving an initial indication that the body is under stress possibly due to lying. References Atkinson, R., Atkinson, R., Smith, E., Bem, D. and Hilgard, E. (1993). Introduction to psychology. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, pp.406-407. Engler, L., Lloyd, W., Martin-Koob, J. and Naze, S., 2011. Liar, Pants on Fire! A Physiological Study of Deception. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Physiology, 435. Gallai, D., 1999. Polygraph evidence in federal courts: Should it be admissible. Am. Crim. L. Rev., 36, p.87. Handler, M. and Honts, C.R., 2007. Psychophysiological mechanisms in deception detection: A theoretical overview. Polygraph, 36(4), pp.221-232. Lader, M. and Montagu, J. (1962). The psycho-galvanic reflex: a pharmacological study of the peripheral mechanism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery

## Belhaven University Leadership Training Paper

Prompt: If your boss called you in today and stated that the company needed a new leadership focus….What would you present on? What topics from this course would you focus on? What in this course was of an interest to you and something you very much want to share with your organization? This is your chance to take what you have learned and apply it. This is a chance to show why you deserve that promotion. What will make this paper great is your passion for wanting to lead and help people. Make it your own and follow your passion. A minimum of 10 pages not to exceed 15, typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman font, using APA standard. Title page, running head, including title of paper, your name, course name and course number, date of submission (Page 1). A minimum of 8 pages (Pages 2-13) o Introduction of the need for Team Leadership training o Diagnosis of problems and potential solutions in team leadership o Discussion of current research on improving team effectiveness o Include Communication, Conflict, Creativity, and Cultureo Include the Five Appreciationso Discuss the Five Dysfunctions of a Teamo Discussion of evaluation of training effectiveness o Brief summary of the biblical implications o Proposed syllabus for the training (1-2 pages) A reference page (Pages 14-15) A minimum of 5 references are required, The Holy Bible, books and articles from academic sources (Online Library), and other periodicals.22

## American Literature Learning Journal (BINGO)

nursing essay writing service American Literature Learning Journal (BINGO). I’m studying and need help with a English question to help me learn.

Learning how to learn is just as important as what one is learning. Learning to learn, or metacognition, is about becoming aware of one’s strengths and weaknesses as a learner. It is about acting on that awareness to change the way one does things. Once the you are aware, you gain control over future learning situations.
Reflection as a form of metacognition or “thinking about “thinking” enables you to evaluate your experience, learn from your mistakes, repeat your successes, revise, and plan. Therefore, you will be practicing this reflective thinking process by self-assessing your own grammar and writing skills – identifying your strengths, and more importantly, your weaknesses that you will need to focus on for improvement.
Post your self-assessment of reading issues that you will need to focus on for improvement based on your experiences with the Week 6 reading, the discussion activity, and your preparation for Exam #2.
American Literature Learning Journal (BINGO)

## a research based paper based on the following readings and the materials

Choose 2 poets (one woman one man) from the Black Arts Movement. Select a poem from each. Write a 250 word analysis of the poem and biography of the poet. Write: 1000 word essay on what you think and learned from reading MLK and MX essays. Write: 300 word essay on Combahee River Collective Statement Assigned Readings: The Black Arts Movement by Larry Neal http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai3/community/text8/blackartsmovement.pdfOpen this document with ReadSpeaker docReader Ballot or Bullet Malcolm X (read, watch or listen to entire speech) available on YouTube and the text can be accessed here: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?psid=3624

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