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​Create a 2-3 page project summary that describes your chosen organization, a business problem or opportunity, the kind of data you will need, and how your topic allows you to demonstrate the MBA program outcomes.

​Create a 2-3 page project summary that describes your chosen organization, a business problem or opportunity, the kind of data you will need, and how your topic allows you to demonstrate the MBA program outcomes..

Create a 2-3 page project summary that describes T-mobile…a business problem or opportunity, the kind of data you will need, and how your topic allows you to demonstrate the MBA program outcomes.IntroductionThis course revolves around the creation of a single, significant capstone project. In other words, a project that caps off your learning and your program, allowing you to demonstrate the competencies of leadership and collaboration, ethical and evidence-based decision making, and innovative and strategic thinking. For your capstone, you will choose a real company and analyze it in a way that demonstrates your understanding of the MBA program outcomes. You will turn your analysis of that company into a written report with recommendations and a formal presentation for your intended audience.Having a solid, doable scope is an important part of creating a successful capstone project, and the exact scope is up to you. To help you establish a realistic scope, you will start with the project summary. Be careful to consider the scalability of your project scope, ensuring that it demonstrates your ability to lead in a business environment and showcases your achievement of all MBA program outcomes.ExamplesA scope that is poorly defined:I want to write a general analysis of the bookseller, Barnes & Noble.This topic is too broad, and it would probably require hundreds of pages to address all of the possible analyses.A scope that is better defined:I want to focus on how Barnes & Noble has managed to survive the Internet age while Borders has crumbled.What makes this a better scope? The scope is grounded in a problem (such as how to survive Internet competition) or opportunity (such as the area lacking a business that you plan to open), which allows you to focus the analysis.It must also allow for you to analyze and suggest evidence-based recommendations, takeaways, or actionable next steps as the crux of your project.PreparationRead the MBA Capstone Project Description [PDF].Assessment DescriptionFor this assessment, introduce the organization you have chosen to research, why you chose it, and how it will allow you to demonstrate all of the MBA program outcomes.Write a 2–3 page paper, in an academic writing style, that details the topic and scope of your capstone project. Your project summary should be clear and concise yet thorough enough for faculty to provide feedback and guidance. Your project summary should be well organized and include the following sections:Describe the background of your chosen organization. Provide a brief background of your selected organization. For instance, discuss its product lines, number of years in business, organization structure, location, et cetera.If you choose an organization for which you work, your introduction must include a statement that you received permission to use the company from a supervisor.Describe a business topic, problem, or opportunity that you intend to research.Describe the problem or opportunity you see that makes this company a good choice. Explain the scope of your project by clearly identifying the topics or areas you intend to research. Explain the level of accessibility to data necessary to examine the chosen business topic, problem, or opportunity.Address how you will go about obtaining the data.Identify any special requirements that you might need to meet to access the data you will need. Explain risks you think will be encountered and the mitigation plan to manage those risks.Explain how your topic will allow you to showcase your leadership ability by demonstrating each MBA program outcome. List out each program outcome clearly, and then explain in 3–4 sentences how your topic will allow you to demonstrate each. The MBA program outcomes are listed in the MBA Capstone Project Description.Identify specific items of your project summary that you believe demonstrates the outcome. Wrap up your paper with a clear, concise conclusion that summarizes your plan. Just a couple sentences is fine.Your project summary should have these sections:Introduction.Statement of scope.Demonstration of outcomes.Conclusion. Submission RequirementsStyle: Your paper should follow the corresponding MBA Academic and Professional Document guidelines (available in the MBA Program Resources) for academic style. It should be double spaced, use subheadings, and be well organized and well written.Communication: Ensure written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message and quality.APA guidelines: Format your paper according to current APA style and formatting.Resources: At least one resource should be a scholarly article or other content found in the Capella library, and one should be from the Wall Street Journal. If using Internet sources, evaluate them appropriately to make sure they are credible resources. Length: Your paper should be between 2–3 pages.Font and font size: Use 12 point, Times New Roman.EvaluationBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies through corresponding scoring guide criteria:Competency 2: Integrate information across disciplines and from differing perspectives.Describe the background of the chosen organization.Competency 3: Think critically and analytically to provide evidence-based solutions to business challenges and opportunities.Describe an intended business topic, problem, or opportunity to research.Explain the level of accessibility to data necessary to examine the chosen business topic, problem, or opportunity. Explain how the topic will allow showcasing of leadership ability by demonstrating some MBA program outcomes.Competency 7: Communicate clearly and effectively in a business environment.Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a business professional.
​Create a 2-3 page project summary that describes your chosen organization, a business problem or opportunity, the kind of data you will need, and how your topic allows you to demonstrate the MBA program outcomes.

strategy of competing in international markets – walgreens.

Modes of entry into an international market are the channels which organizations employ to gain entry to a new international market.Within our Thompson (2020) text, read Chapter 7 Assurance of Learning Exercise #2 related to Walgreens’ mode(s) international market entry and respond to the following questions: – TEXTBOOK ATTACHEDWhat was Walgreens’ entry strategy designed to achieve?Why would this make sense for a company like Walgreens?Provide two recommendations on what Walgreens might do differently going forward with their entry strategy? Make sure you support your recommendations?Incorporate our coursework (Thompson text and other material) from this week into your above responses.Submission Details: Your analysis must be driven by facts, research, and data.Incorporate a minimum of at least one course (Thompson text) and one non-course scholarly/peer reviewed source in your paper. All written assignments must include a coverage page, introductory and concluding paragraphs, reference page, double-spaced and proper in-text citations using APA guidelines
strategy of competing in international markets – walgreens

HCS 370 UOP Wk 5 Organizational Change Waste Management Discussion

HCS 370 UOP Wk 5 Organizational Change Waste Management Discussion.

Read the following scenario to complete this assignment.undefinedThe health care industry, like other industries, is a very competitive environment. As organizational behavior within health care companies evolves, it will be even more important to consider the future use of learning about/applying concepts of organizational behavior and the need for continuing education.undefinedAfter a productive year with the medical waste management company, Justin has now been tasked with implementing a company-wide policy change to require continuing education. Each employee will now be required to complete 2 hours of continuing education each year. Justin’s supervisor has asked for an analysis and plan for the implementation of this company-wide change. This analysis will be presented to company leadership as a tool for understanding and implementing this change.undefinedAnswer the following prompts.undefinedCite 2 reputable references. Reputable references include trade or industry publications; government or agency websites; scholarly works; your textbook, Organizational Behavior in Health Care (4th ed.); or other sources of similar quality.undefinedFormat your references according to APA guidelines.undefinedExplain the importance of continuing education regarding organizational change (100–175 words). Explain the impact this policy change may have on the organizational behavior and organizational culture of the company (100–175 words).Explain barriers to change and how to address the barriers (100–175 words).Explain how this change may affect individual job performance and job satisfaction (100–175 words). Explain a motivational strategy that might be used for implementation (100–175 words). Explain how teams or groups could be used to implement this policy change. Include a review of two approaches managers can use to build team performance and two organizational barriers to team effectiveness (100–175 words).Identify communication methods to be used to support this policy change implementation (45–90 words).undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedClick or tap here to enter text.undefinedSubmit your assignment.
HCS 370 UOP Wk 5 Organizational Change Waste Management Discussion

University of Virginia Cloud Platforms Article Writing

essay writer free University of Virginia Cloud Platforms Article Writing.

Hi, i want to write some Articles and Publish , i am from IT background and have 10 years of experience, I want to write articles about Cloud Platforms comparison advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft Azure Vs AWS topic and give to publications , please write a short paragraph (approximately 100 words) about the main points or story “hook” that would be made in an article with each title on the below. Please develop your query paragraphs duplicating the format/example attached. This is the way we need to present topics to editors. Please keep in mind that editors probably won’t be interested in publishing an article that refers to specific product/company names.1. How to Choose the Right Cloud Service Provider for Your Business2. Technology Trends: The Emergence of Multi and Hybrid Cloud Services3. The Truth about Cloud Migration and Implementation Costs4. Critical Thinking: How to Choose the Right Cloud Service Provider5. Migration to the Cloud: The Three Biggest Mistakes Companies Make6. The Five Key Issues Related to Migration to the Cloud (data security, legal, compliance, privacy, cultural shift)
University of Virginia Cloud Platforms Article Writing

How motivation theories help elicit effort from employees

How motivation theories help elicit effort from employees. For a company to successfully run, company should come up with creative ideas and high efficiency of the work, and to do that, a firm should be able to motivate each worker of the firm to elicit each of their discretionary effort. It is because, it directly links with the total wage spending of the company which should be linked to outcome and cost of monitoring effort and considering all of those making employees willing to work will result in greater efficiency of the company. Employees are the core or the main body of all the production of product and service. So how can a company which does not even satisfy their own workers will possibly satisfy the customers with high quality product and service?() Therefore, there is an idea weighing on the management style of ‘of the workers, by the workers, for the workers'(). Following to above management style, manager of big companies are developing or considering variety motivating techniques and motivation theories. So firms not only needs deal fast with each of their own fast-changing environment but also concentrate to create best working condition for the workers to maximize motivation. Like firms mentioned above with motivation, they are nimble to listen to the claims of the employees. They apply techniques like project team-work, performance-linked pay and incentives to reach perfect inner-service to the workers. So, like above, there is gaining importance of giving motivation to workers. In this essay, I will search and study theories of motivation and look in to detail of successful firm ‘Nokia’ and analyze this firm by doing it so, I would like to find out the meaning of motivation and how well those managers of Nokia have elicited ‘discretionary effort’ from workers for the company. Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory Most famous is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. He believed that there is 5 level of hierarchy of needs exist within human nature. (A.H. Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50(4) (1943):370-96) Physiological Needs It is simply most basic needs for human to survive. Things like needs of oxygen for breathe, fulfillment of hunger, thirst, sex and sleep. They are the biological needs which are most essential, it comes front of all the desires that human would want. Safety Needs When physiological needs are fulfilled, the needs of security are followed. Human should fill sense of safety of their own health, employment, property and resources. Those factors make them feeling safe. Needs of Love/Belonging Human is social animal, when the front two needs are filled, third need can become dominant. Human nature always seeks for the sense of belonging and love/friendship. Maslow describes “people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation” (Maslow, Abraham (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper). Needs for Esteem When the first three needs reach to satisfactory level, the needs for esteem can become next. It is like self-esteem and respect from others. When these self-esteem and respect is gratified, the person feels confident and valuable as a part of person in a society. Deficiency of those needs would make a person feels weak, inferior and nothing. Needs for Self-Actualization When each level of foregoing needs is fully satisfied, then the last level of needs “self-actualization” is activated. According to Maslow, self-actualization is what a person’s need to be what they are “born to do.” There is a famous quote by Maslow, Abraham H. “A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if they are to be ultimately at peace with themselves”. These needs make people to feel progressing, reach-potential and self-fulfillment. (Psychology – The Search for Understanding by Janet A. Simons, Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien West Publishing Company, New York, 1987) By observing hierarchy of needs, each level tends to be satisfied to progress on next level of hierarchy. However, from the point of ‘giving motivation’ view, none of those desires or needs could not been perfectly satisfied. Maslow theory describes that somehow-satisfied need could not stimulate the people any longer. >> How hierarchy of needs Theory could be used in management According to Maslow, if someone wants to motivate somebody, there is a need of understanding what that specific person wants and find out where his or her need is located in hierarchy of needs and provide the upper level of hierarchy. Adams’s Equity Theory Adams, J.S. 1965. Inequity in social exchange. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. An individual always do compare himself to others. Let’s say, an individual got offer of 2500 pound per month and he thinks it is very good deal and took the job, he will do his job with passion and he will be satisfied with his work. However, if someone else or his acquaintance gets the same job with 3000 pounds with same as his ability/work time/contribution, probably he will not be happy about his earning and job. Even if he was satisfied with his earnings in the beginning, as soon as he feels that it’s not fair or equal treatment, the matter that he gets good paid it will not consider him much, but rather obsessed with other’s payment. The problem is that individual starts to think comparatively and starts to believe it is not fair. An individual always compare within his mind and think about the effort he put in and the reward. By doing so, if an individual thinks that he is not fairly treated, the input effort will be directly affected (demotivated). Above example’s idea is called ‘Equity Theory’ and it was developed by Stacey Adams in 1965. It is simply, an individual comparing his input-reward and other’s input-reward proportion. For an employee to compare himself in equity theory, the referent is important variable. There are three types of referent ‘system’, ‘self’ and ‘other’. For system, the referent is the system of individual’s belonged organization. Individual will take wage structures, wage policy and decision-making process into the consideration. Also, organization will need to make important decision with organization’s system to an individual as a comparison to others. Putting ‘self’ as a comparison referent, result ration of input will be referenced to individual. This is reflected by one’s experience or standard wage or family maintenance-need allowance. Equity theory is not only interested in absolute reward, it also has interest in other’s reward. An individual do compare other’s input-reward, founding on effort, experience, education, and ability over their wage level, promotion and recognition. If an individual feels unfair and inequitable over reward ration of input, this feeling will make him/her to experience ‘tension’. This tension will continually provide motivation until he/she is treated in equity to him. >> How Equity Theory could be used in management Monthly paid employees will enhance quality and quantity to feel the fairness with ‘tension’ and increase input factor for fair wage proportion. When compensation is made with Production quantity, over-rewarded worker will have lower quality but higher quantity just to increase their income. However, an individual who receive payment founding on price ratio will increase in effort to accomplish fairness and this will lead to increase in quantity and quality. But, this might result in excess payment and unfairness. Therefore, managers should direct employees to enhancing in quality rather than quantity. Also motivation is influenced by not only absolute reward but also relative reward. Each time when employee feels that s/he is unfairly treated, it will follow an action to fix about that inequity, like improved or diminished productivity or quality, absence and turnover. Therefore, it is most important factor to make employees to feel in equity in equity theory. >> Vroom’s expectancy theory Most comprehensive explanation about motivation is performed within Victer Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Expectancy theory is well described by Montana (Montana Patrick J; Charnov, Bruce H, Management – 4th edition; (2008) – Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.), “This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients.” The expectancy theory suggest that action is followed the expectation from the result and the amount of effort is decided by how attractive the result is to an individual himself. Below, there are three linkages with this theory. Effort-performance linkage: Possibility of reward expected by putting certain amount of effort. Performance-reward linkage: Beliefs which expect right reward will be given by doing certain level of performance. Attractiveness: a person’s target and desire of potential result or reward which could be obtained by doing his job successfully. All explanations seem similar, but simply there are three points. First, how much an individual should work for certain level of outcome and whether that outcome is possibly achieved. Second, what will be the reward for doing such work? Third, how attractive the reward is from the effort of doing such work and how does this job help with goal achievement? ≫ Applying Expectancy Theory How ‘Expectancy Theory’ could be applied? For to link with motivation, I will example myself and try to find out how this theory used. Most of students have preference on professors or lecturer expecting for something that they would like to learn from the course unit. They would like to know when the exam will be, what kind of assignment they need to do and how much percentage will be taken to get maximum grade or how much amount of time will going to be needed, and think logically about whether this course is linked with what they need. Let’s say that I feel in the way above. I liked this course unit and worked really hard to get good mark on this essay. I have prepared for long time for this and believed that this will be helpful when I graduate and get good job or get into master course. Then, result came out, my average score of all the course units were 72 percent, however, this specific course was 41 percent. And I got angry and frustrated. Like other assignments, I prepared exact amount of time and put effort, but how could only this specific unit gets such a low score? From here there will be some interesting facts will be coming out. Suddenly, he (I, from other’s perspective from now on) will be constantly missing this unit course lecture and do not revise. Even if he attends the lecture concentration for this course is hugely dropped. So, we could say that his motivation is lacking with the related subject. Why did he change? To explain this using motivation theory term; At the beginning, the merit of good grade (Effort-performance linkage) was high. However, the result was not good (Performance-reward linkage). In other words, if the assignment was fairly graded based on what he did and got good score, the Performance-reward linkage is satisfied and it would have motivated him more. However, if he is demotivated, it is from his belief that his knowledge was not incongruous with fair grading system. >> How ‘Expectancy Theory’ could be used in management First, Expectancy Theory emphasizes on pay and reward. As a result, organization should believe that employees also want the same reward and compensate. This kind of perspective is from egoism that an employee pursuit expected-satisfaction to be maximized. So that manager needs to try to fulfill that expected-satisfaction wisely. Second, theory points up understanding of attractiveness by the workers. Employees will want to be treated reasonably with positive result/target/outcome they expected. Therefore, the firm should try to satisfy employees’ attractiveness. Third, theory highlights on expected performance. Does an individual understands what is expected on s/he and how could it be compensated. If workers do not grasp the point of this relation, the ultimate goal of organization will be never met. So, this is essential to make both manager and workers to understand clear of performance-reward relation. Last, theory relates with perception. No matter what actually happens, a person’s perception decides level of effort according from not objective result but from performance, reward and goal achievement. Therefore, there is a need for continuous feedback to match the reality and perception of workers. Case Study ¿­ What is Nokia? Nokia is a Finnish multinational network corporation is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo (“Nokia in brief (2007)” (PDF). Nokia Corporation. March 2008.) Nokia’s main industry is in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries, with 128,445 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of EUR 50.7 billion and operating profit of 5.0 billion in 2008. It is the world’s largest manufacturer of mobile phones: its global device market share is approximately 38% in 2009, (“Q3 2009: Quarterly and annual information”. Nokia Corporation. 2009-10-15) The Nokia brand, valued at $34.9 billion, is listed as the fifth most valuable global brand in the BusinessWeek, Best Global Brands list of 2009 (first in non-US Company). It is the number one brand in Asia (as of 2007) and Europe. Also Nokia is the 42nd most admirable company worldwide in Fortune’s World’s Most Admired Companies list of 2009, and the world’s 85th largest company as measured by revenue in Fortune Global 500 list of 2009. (“Fortune Global 500 2009”. Fortune. 2009-07-14.) – Nokia’s Case study for motivation Incentive Program ¿­ Monetary Incentives: work performance wage structure, Global bonus plan (when profit exceeded 20%, 5% cash payback), production and researchers’ incentives. ¿­ Non-monetary performance bonus system and Complete and Fair Assessment Nokia motivates employees by providing rewards according to their performance. However, it’s hard to see that they only motivated people with monetary returns, Non-monetary performance bonus system also help to motivate workers. Things like promotions and possibility to self-development will help and also a clear and fair system for this is needed. Nokia is not in seniority system, there was a case 34 years old man became vice president by his ability. Nokia tried to achieve highest level of work satisfaction. 2. Empowerment organization ¿­ Allowing autonomy, leads to motivation Bureaucratic chain of command provides high efficiency, but this has disadvantage of blocking creative ideas coming up from bottom line of workers. And this is one of the factors blocking motivation. Exampling Nokia, they allow significant amount of autonomous decision to workers. This provides sense of belonging to a company and people feel that they are taking part for company’s profit. This leads to motivation of workers due to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (sense of belonging). Case: Nokia immediately supported 6,000,000 dollars for the marketing for Pacific-Asia market as they received idea of competition going harsh in China. 3. Project manager system Technology, marketing, production and salesman unites as one team and work for 1-2 years for specific project and managers for the project are empowered like chairman in that specific project; this stimulates workers as it has venture business attributes. Nokia has number of small projects teams. Those groups decide everything like estimated budgets too. This gives power to agilely response to market changes. 4. Human resource development program Providing self-developing opportunities to employees / Maximizing self-development and self-actualization at work Human resource is crucial factor for economical production in industry f like Nokia with high knowledge and technology. Competitive power is human resources. Modern employees tend to think a company as not only place for earning-money but also as place for self-actualization. Therefore, a company with no self-development lacks power to attract more human resources (Attractiveness, Vroom’s expectancy theory). So, firms should provide more opportunities and sense of duty of the company like Nokia’s human resource development program.(In Nokia, they value employees through 180 inspections list, helps to find out each workers adaptation-skill and decision-making skills in five levels. By doing so, it tells what that employee needs in specific details and gives job according to it and provide staff training service) and they also provided for experience improvement program by going around world branches. ※ Based on Nokia’s motivation system, 19% of market share in mobile technology in 1999, increased up to 35% in 2001. Also, total sales were increased 48% leaving total profit 56% higher. Matthew J. (1996), 「Future management (미래경영) 11」, Dae-kyung publishing company. Nokia homepage 「Analyzing Nokia’s success」 From Conclusion Managers tend to think that talented-employees turnover is cause by higher financial reward from other company. However, many of employees’ turnover reasons are like vision-realization, challenging to new work, harmony of both life and work, higher opportunity of recognition and flexibility of culture and organization. These kinds of reasons suggest that motivation is not only from financial issues but also from Non-monetary issues like mentioned above. I believe what employees consider most is winning recognition from their bosses about work-performance. If this is not done, it’s evitable to demotivate workers. In this contrast, Nokia has well understood workers, with fair assessment; they have suggested sense of duty to their workers for the company and made them feel as important part of Nokia. As conclusion Nokia got grater profit and it can be said that Nokia has successfully motivated their employees. Those kinds of techniques of motivation are all founded from the theories of Maslow, Adams and Vroom and Nokia successfully adopted in reality. How motivation theories help elicit effort from employees

Energy Balance For An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay

The main objective of the experiment is to measure the energy contributions to the diesel engine, which is treated as a thermodynamics system. The energy contributions that are not measured may then be estimated from an energy balance. There are two main, unmeasured energy contributions to identify:- An energy loss from incomplete combustion, in which some of the fuel is not burned completely. An energy loss by heat transfer to the air surrounding hot engine components. Introduction A Petter four stroke diesel engine will be used to investigate the efficiency of a diesel engine. Diesel engines are internal combustion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in the fuel, into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy moves the pistons up and down inside cylinders. The pistons are connected to a crankshaft, and the up-and-down motion of the pistons, known as linear motion, creates the rotary motion needed to turn the wheels of a car forward. We are already aware of the fact that internal combustion engines have very low efficiencies, but the purpose of such experiment is to study where and how the energy is used and lost. This would help us to improve the efficiency of the internal combustion engines where ever possible. Theory Both diesel engines and petrol engines convert fuel into energy through a series of small explosions or combustions. The major difference between diesel and petrol engines is the way these explosions happen. In a petrol engine, fuel is mixed with air, compressed by pistons and ignited by sparks from spark plugs. In a diesel engine, however, the air is compressed first, and then the fuel is injected, because as the air is compressed it heats up to around 400°C, it is hot enough to ignite fuel. A four stroke diesel engine uses the following cycle (illustrated in Figure1): Intake stroke — The intake valve opens, and fresh air (containing no fuel), is drawn into the cylinder, moving the piston down. Compression stroke — As the piston rises, the air is compressed, causing its temperature to rise. At the end of the compression stroke, the air is hot enough to ignite fuel. Combustion stroke — As the piston reaches the top, fuel is injected at just the right moment and ignited, forcing the piston back down. Exhaust stroke — The piston moves back to the top, pushing out the exhaust created from the combustion out of the exhaust valve. Figure 1 24075-004-613c6f14.gif Eq1From the basic steady flow energy equation, using the air-cycle method, we may write:- The value of can be approximated, closely, to: , Cpe is taken as 1100J/KgK It is convenient to replace by in order to make an allowance for the possibility of incomplete combustion. *Where, FL, is the proportion of fuel energy that is not available because of incomplete combustion. Heat transfer, (Qr), is the sum of energy transferred to cooling water and energy lost to the surrounding from hot engine components, therefore we can write: Qr = -dot mw Cpw ( Tout – Tin ) Qrn Replacing all quantities in Eq1 we get: Symbols explained as follows: rate of heat energy transfer of system rate of the work done by the system (power) combustion air mass flow rate fuel mass rate specific enthalpy of products of combustion specific enthalpy of combustion air specific heat of water 4190 J/kgK Apparatus The Apparatus used in this experiment is mentioned as follows: Petter Diesel Engine: A four stroke, single cylinder, 659CC Petter Diesel Engine was used to conduct the experiment. Figure 2 shows the picture of Petter Diesel Engine used in the experiment. Ear Muffles: Ear muffles were used to protect the ears from the loud noise of the diesel engine; prolonged exposure to such loud noise without ear protection can lead to hearing impairment. Barometer: A Barometer was used to measure the atmospheric pressure at the time of experiment. Atmospheric pressure was needed to calculate the mass flow rate. The Barometer gives readings in mmHg. Figure 3 shows the picture of barometer used in the experiment. IMG_4763.JPGIMG_4767.JPG Figure 2 Figure 3 Experimental Procedure The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the efficiency of a diesel engine. To start with the experiment, all the gauges on the apparatus were pre set to default readings and as a safety precaution all students were provided with ear muffles. Each individual group member was assigned a task by the module lecturer. My assigned task was to measure the oil and at the same time, time the engine as it consumed the set amount of diesel. Similarly other students were given tasks, which they carried on doing as the experiment progressed. The engine was started and after waiting for the recommended time of ten minutes, all the readings were taken off gauges. A weight of 5kg was already placed onto the torque arm before starting the engine. Measurements such as fuel flow rate, cooling water flow-rate, spring balance, orifice plate pressure drop, speed gauge and electric thermometer were taken. Electric thermometer reading is divided into four parts, mentioned as follows: Exhaust temperature Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water outlet temperature Air inlet temperature After taking all the readings, engine was shut down and ear muffles were removed. The readings taken off the gauges were then used to work out the energy balance for an internal combustion engine. Results MEASURED PROPERTY VALUE UNITS Atmospheric Pressure 764 mmHg Engine Speed 1500 rpm Spring balance reading 15 N Mass on torque arm 5 Kg Amount of Fuel measured 20 ml Time to consume fuel 97 Seconds Relative density of fuel 0.864 – Orifice plate pressure drop 31 mmH2O Exhaust gas temperature 260 Degrees Celsius Cooling water inlet temperature 69 Degrees Celsius Cooling water outlet Temperature 75 Degrees Celsius Air inlet Temperature 18.5 Degrees Celsius Cooling water flow-rate 5 litres/minute Following readings were obtained from the gauges: 1. Shaft power output= torque* shaft rotational speed = W(kg load -dial reading)*rt*N(rpm)*2π/60 = (5*9.81)-15*0.4*1500*2π/60 = 2139.42 Watts = 6.13 10-3 kg/s 3. Fuel flow rate = = (20 10-3/1000) (864) = Kg/s 4. Heat transfer rate to the cooling water = {(l/min)/60} * 4.196* (Tout – Tin) = *4.196*(75-69) = 2.098 kJ/s 5. Heat transfer to exhaust gases = (6.24 = 1.70 kJ/s 6. Energy Balance: Fuel Energy Input = mf*LCV = (1.78×10-4) x (43×106) = 7654W Shaft Power Output= 2139.42W Cooling Water Heat Transfer= 2098W Exhaust Heat Transfer = 1700W Energy Transfer =Qm-mf *FL = -7654 2139.42 2098 1700 = -1716.58W Efficiency = n=useful work output fuel energy input =2139.42 x 100 7654 =27.95% (Useful Work) Energy to surroundings = (Heat supplied in fuel – Useful work done – Energy to coolant – Energy to exhaust) = 7.66 – 2.14 – 2.10 – 1.68 = 1.74KW Percentage energy to coolant = Energy to coolant – 100 Heat supplied in fuel = x 100 = 27.41% Percentage to exhaust = Energy to exhaust – 100 Heat supplied in fuel = x 100 = 21.93% Percentage loss to the surrounding = Energy to surroundings – 100 Heat supplied in fuel = x 100 = 22.71% pie chart.jpg Figure 5 Figure 4 Discussion Engine efficiency refers to an engine’s ability to transform the available energy from its fuel into useful work. The modern petrol combustion engine operates at an average of roughly 20 to 30 percent engine efficiency. The remaining 70 to 80 percent of the energy is lost to the surroundings in form of exhaust heat, mechanical sound energy and friction. Diesel engines are a bit more efficient. The diesel engine uses high compression to ignite its fuel. This higher compression compensates for the engines heat losses and results in roughly 40 percent engine efficiency. This engine efficiency is only observed by direct injection diesel engines (discussed later). Rest 60 percent energy, like the petrol engine is lost to the surroundings. The Petter diesel engine which was the subject of this experiment showed a poor overall efficiency compared to an average diesel engine. The overall efficiency of the Petter diesel engine was only 27.95 percent. The reason for such poor efficiency was that most of the energy was lost to surrounding, but that doesn’t mean that the engine cannot me made more efficient. See Figure 4 and 5 for the distribution of energy lost and utilised. There are many ways to improve the efficiency of a diesel engine, some are discussed below: Turbochargers: The purpose of a turbocharger is to compress the air flowing into the diesel engine, this lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder and more air means that more fuel can be added; basically a turbocharger converts waste energy from an engine’s exhaust gases into compressed air, which it pushes into the engine. This allows the engine to burn more fuel producing more power and improves the overall efficiency of the combustion process, hence making the engine more efficient. However, the only disadvantage of a turbocharger is that, if it is in a car’s engine it would take a few second to respond as the driver presses the pedal, this phenomenon is known as lag. Turbocharger suffers from lag because it takes a few moments before the exhaust gases reach a velocity that is sufficient to drive the impeller/turbine. Direct Injection: With direct injection, the diesel fuel is directly injected into the cylinder i.e. fuel is mixed with air inside the cylinder, allowing for better control over the amount of fuel used, and varies depending on demand. This makes the engine more fuel efficient. Before direct injection, the fuel was mixed with air in the car’s intake manifold. Variable Valve Timing: Valves open and close to allow air and fuel to enter cylinders and for the products of combustion to exit. Different valve timings produce different results (more power and or better fuel economy). Many modern engines can vary valve timing, allowing the default low RPM range of the engine to have more economical timing, and the higher RPM range to go for max power. Cylinder Deactivation: Internal Combustion Engines, with this feature can simply deactivate some cylinders when less power is required, temporarily reducing the total volume of the engine cylinders and so burning less fuel. This feature is mostly found on V6 and V8 engines. Super Charger: Superchargers increase the intake of air into the combustion chamber. This means, more air into the combustion chamber and with more air, more fuel can be added, and more fuel means a bigger explosion and greater horsepower. Adding a supercharger is a good way to increase the power of a normal-sized engine and thus making it more efficient. Superchargers also create better fuel efficiency by increasing the amount of oxygen available to an engine’s combustion chambers, because superchargers increase the power of the engine by utilising more oxygen, they do not require a larger engine and therefore also increase fuel efficiency by allowing cars to be lighter. The biggest disadvantage of superchargers however, is that they steal some of the engine’s horsepower. A supercharger can consume as much as 20 percent of an engine’s total power output but also generates as much as 46 percent additional horsepower. Since, it generates more power than it requires, it is generally thought to be good option to increase engines efficiency. Conclusion Diesel engines are a form of Internal Combustion Engines. They are very inefficient if working on their own. Generally about 25-30 percent energy is used in work and the rest is lost to surroundings. The efficiency of a diesel engine can be enhanced by at least 10-15 percent if combined with the modern technological devices, such as turbochargers and superchargers. Other clever techniques can also be used to improve the fuel efficiency and overall engine efficiency of the engine, such as direct injection, variable valve timing and cylinder deactivation. Unfortunately, from the very beginning the focus on an internal combustion engine has been on producing more power rather than providing a better fuel economy, but nowadays due to growing awareness of environment and rising oil prices, engineers have shifted their attention on to producing more fuel efficient engines. For example, BMW is researching on ways to increase the fuel efficiency of a conventional engine by 10-15 percent by looking to recover and reuse heat energy lost through the exhaust and that absorbed by the engine cooling system. With such initiatives we can see a future of more efficient and more environmentally friendly engines.

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